Construction of a dna barcode system for amphibians and reptiles in taiwan
Download
1 / 37

Construction of A DNA Barcode System for Amphibians and Reptiles in Taiwan - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 1161 Views
  • Uploaded on

Construction of A DNA Barcode System for Amphibians and Reptiles in Taiwan. SI-MIN LIN, H.-Y. Chao, H.-Y. Ho, Y.-R. Chen, W.-L. Kao Dept. of Life Science, Chinese Culture University. High percentage of endemic species . Lacertidae 86% are endemic. Timaliidae 94% are endemic.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Construction of A DNA Barcode System for Amphibians and Reptiles in Taiwan' - Faraday


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Construction of a dna barcode system for amphibians and reptiles in taiwan

Construction of A DNA Barcode System for Amphibians and Reptiles in Taiwan

SI-MIN LIN,

H.-Y. Chao, H.-Y. Ho,

Y.-R. Chen, W.-L. Kao

Dept. of Life Science, Chinese Culture University


High percentage of endemic species
High percentage of endemic species Reptiles in Taiwan

Lacertidae

86% are endemic

Timaliidae

94% are endemic

Rhacophorus

100% are endemic

Agamidae

100% are endemic


Cryobanking of genetic materials of animals in taiwan since 2004
Cryobanking of Genetic Materials of Animals in Taiwan since 2004

  • Containing the following subprojects:

    • Fishes: K.-T. Shao

    • Mammals and birds: S.-H. Li and C.-T. Yao

    • Amphibians and reptiles: K.-Y. Lue and S.-M. Lin

    • Invertebrates: NMNS, Taichung

    • Barcode of Herps and birds: S.-M. Lin and S.-H. Li

  • Supported by


Priority
Priority: 2004

  • 1. endemic species and subspecies

  • 2. endangered and threatened species

  • 3. species with potential risks of competing with alien species or nonnative populations

  • 4. Herps:

    • Roughly 100 reptiles and 40 amphibian species

    • the first 2 taxa which could be accomplished within the shortest period


The cryobanking facility in the taipei zoo
The cryobanking facility in the Taipei Zoo 2004

  • 95% amphibians and reptiles species are now available in the tissue bank

  • Most were took pictures when they were alive


Sampling and photographs 2004

Frozen tissues

DNA samples

650 – 670 bp COI sequences

2-G01



Colubridae 2004

Elapidae

Viperidae

NJ tree, HKY

Typhlopidae


Gekkonidae 2004

Lacertidae

Anguilidae

Scincidae

Agamidae

NJ tree, HKY


Microhylidae 2004

Bufonidae

Rhacoporidae

Raniidae

NJ tree, HKY


Difficulties of bol in herps the extremely high divergence in coi sequences
Difficulties of BOL in Herps: 2004 the Extremely High Divergence in COI Sequences

  • Data provider: S.-H. Li



Sequence divergence within genus
Sequence divergence within genus 2004

Takydromus (lizards) only

Lizards

Snakes

Frogs


Generally speaking divergence of congeners
Generally speaking, 2004divergence of congeners:

<

<

<<


High divergence between ancient and derived families 2004

congeners

within family,

between genera

between families


Difficulties in barcoding herps
Difficulties in barcoding Herps: 2004

  • High divergence between species

  • No “really” university primers


What did we learn about herp biodiversity from herp bol
What did we learn about herp biodiversity from 2004“herp-BOL”?

  • Case 1:

    • The “glass lizard”Ophisaurus

    • Polymorphism leads to synonym

  • Case 2:

    • The “grass lizard”Takydromus

    • Cryptic species

  • Case 3:

    • The skink Sphenomorphus

    • High intra-specific divergence


Case 1
Case 1 2004

  • Legless lizard

  • Anguidae

Ophisaurus harti

Ophisaurus formosensis


Synonym 2004

Morphological polymorphism has misled for 70 years until DNA barcodes helped to solve the problem

=


Case 2 takydromus formosanus
Case 2 2004Takydromus formosanus

100

Northern pop.

n = 105

50

Eastern pop.

n = 80

78

100

T. heuehshanensis

n = 38

100

Western pop.

n = 100

100

0.02


Type location: Central Formosa (Taiwanfoo) 2004

Collector: Mr. Holst

Type


Discriminate analysis 2004

Northern pop.

Eastern pop.

-14

-16

-18

dim1

-20

-22

Western pop.

-24

Type

-26

10

12

14

16

18

dim2


T. viridipunctatus 2004 sp. nov

T. luyeanus sp. nov

T. formosanus

Reproductive isolation because of different secondary sex characters during breeding seasons


1 2004

SEX102.seq

SEX101.seq

SEX105.seq

SEX107.seq

SEX103.seq

SEX104.seq

0212

0208

0217

0205

0213

R39.txt

R38.txt

R37.txt

0215

SEX106.seq

0201

0405-COI

0402-COI

0406-COI

0403-COI

0404-COI

0501

0502

0401-COI

0316-COI

0330-COI

0325-COI

0326-COI

0323-COI

0304-COI

SEXS0104.TXT

SEXS0105.TXT

SEXS0107.TXT

SEXS0102.TXT

SEXS0106.TXT

SEXS0101.TXT

Takydromus sexlineatus

species complex

Hongkong

100

100

100

Vietnam

86

94

96

100

100

100

100

100

100

Indonesia 1

100

100

100

70

91

91

100

100

100

Indonesia 2

ML tree, Tamura-Nei


Case 3

Sphenomorphus taiwanensis 2004

A high-mountain skink with poor dispersal ability

D

D

A*

A*

A*

100

E

B*

B*

A*

A*

B*

70

AD*

A*

D

AD*

AD*

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

J

100

I

I

I

I

100

J

H

I

HI

100

I

I

H

F

F

F

99

F

F

F

96

I

G

E

E

C*

C*

E

E

S. incognitus

S. indicus

0.01 substitutions/site

COI sequence

MP tree

Case 3

1

2

3

4

5

7

6

100

8

9


p-distance between lineages 2004

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

2

Within-species divergence is possible to exceed 10% in reptiles!

3

4

5

6

7

8

9


No evidence to separate them into different species
No evidence to separate them into different species! 2004

  • High intra-specific divergence

  • No morphological difference

  • No behavioral difference

  • Sympatric distribution


Conclusion
Conclusion 2004

  • Barcoding of all amphibian and reptile species in Taiwan will be accomplished within this year.

  • Almost impossible to develop “universal primers” for all taxa.

  • Difficult to amplify all species within a short period.


Conclusion1
Conclusion 2004

  • Effective tool in biodiversity evaluation.

  • Species delimitation - as the always problem in amphibians and reptiles.

  • Taxonomists and evolutionists are needed to involve in this issue before barcode could be used.

  • Call for international cooperation on

    “Herp-BOL”, which is still not organized.


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements 2004

  • a

  • Dr. Kwang-Tsao Shao

  • Dr. Shou-Hsien Li

  • Dr. Kuang-Yang Lue

  • Y.-J. Liang

  • K.-Y. Chung

  • W.-L. Kao


ad