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Respiratory system. By Briana Campbell & Stacie Walker. Function. Obtaining oxygen and removing Carbon Dioxide are the primary functions The entire process of gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells is called respiration http://youtu.be/p4zOXOM6wgE. Air through the Respiratory System .

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Respiratory system

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Respiratory system
Respiratory system

By Briana Campbell & Stacie Walker


Function
Function

  • Obtaining oxygen and removing Carbon Dioxide are the primary functions

  • The entire process of gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells is called respiration

  • http://youtu.be/p4zOXOM6wgE


Air through the respiratory system
Air through the Respiratory System

  • Nose/Mouth

  • Nasal Cavity

  • Nasopharynx

  • Oropharynx

  • Laryngopharynx

  • Larynx

  • Trachea

  • Bronchi

  • Bronchioles

  • Alveoli

  • Capillaries of lungs



Respiratory system
Nose

  • Made of bone and cartilage that support the nose

  • Nostrils are openings for air

  • First line of defense against contaminants in the air

  • Any large particulate matter is filtered out by the nose hairs

  • Separated by nasal septum


Nasal cavity
Nasal Cavity

  • Nasal conch divides the nasal cavity into passage ways to help increase the area of the mucous membrane

  • Filters, warms and moistens incoming air

    • To maintain good health it is necessary to keep the lower respiratory system warm

  • Second line of defense

    • The mucous that coats the lining of the nasal cavity filters out particles that are smaller

  • Ciliary action carries particles trapped in the mucus to the pharynx where they are swallowed


Paranasal sinuses
Paranasal Sinuses

  • Mucous membrane lines the sinus

  • Divided into the

    • frontal

    • maxillary

    • sphenoid

    • ethnoid

  • Named after the bones they are near


Pharynx
Pharynx

  • Behind the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx

  • Passageway for air and food

  • Air is further purified and filtered to eliminate germs and unwanted chemicals


Larynx
Larynx

  • Conducts air and helps prevent foreign objects from entering the trachea

  • The glottis and epiglottis helps prevent foods and liquids from entering the trachea

  • Contains vocal cords which vibrate from side to side to produce sounds


Trachea
Trachea

  • Often called the windpipe

  • Little longer than 4 inches

  • Extends into the thoracic cavity anterior to the esophagus

  • Divides into the right and left bronchi


Bronchial tree
Bronchial tree

  • Branched air passages that lead from the trachea to the air sacs

  • As tubes get smaller they are called bronchioles

  • Alveoli are at the distal ends of the narrowest tubes the alveolar ducts



Lungs
Lungs

  • Soft spongy and cone shaped

  • Mediastinum separates to the left and right lungs

  • Diaphragm and thoracic cage enclose them

  • Viceral pleura attaches to the surface of the lungs

  • Each lobe of the lungs is composed of:

    • Alveoli

    • Blood vessels

    • Supporting tissues



Breathing mechanism
Breathing Mechanism

Inspiration

Expiration

  • Atmospheric pressure forces air into the lungs

  • Occurs when the pressure inside the alveoli decreases

  • Breathing in

  • Elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension within alveoli provide the force for expiration

  • Thoracic and abdominal wall muscles aid in expiration

  • Breathing out




Respiratory center
Respiratory Center

  • Brain stem and portions of the Pons and Medulla Oblongata

  • Pneumotaxic regulates breathing rates


Respiratory system

Decreased blood oxygen concentration stimulates peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies


Respiratory membrane
Respiratory Membrane chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies

  • Consists of alveolar and capillary walls

  • Blood and alveolar air exchange gases across the membrane

  • Inner lining of simple squamous epithelium and a dense network of capillaries


Diffusion
Diffusion chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies

  • Partial pressure of a gas is proportional to the concentration of that gas in a mixture or the concentration dissolved in a liquid

  • Gases diffuse from regions of higher partial pressure toward regions of lower partial pressure

  • Oxygen diffuses from alveolar air into blood

  • Carbon Dioxide diffuses from blood into alveolar air


Oxygen and carbon dioxide
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies

Oxygen

Carbon Dioxide


Oxygen
Oxygen chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies

  • Blood mainly transports oxygen in combination with hemoglobin molecules

  • The resulting oxyhemoglobin is unstable and releases its oxygen in regions where the PO2 is low

  • More oxygen is released as the blood concentration of carbon dioxide increases, as blood becomes more acidic, and as the blood temperature increases


Carbon dioxide
Carbon Dioxide chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies

  • Carbon Dioxide may be carried in solution, bound to hemoglobin, or as a bicarbonate ion

  • Most carbon dioxide is transported in the form of bicarbonate ions

  • The enzyme carbonic anhydrase speeds the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid

  • Carbonic acid dissociates to release hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions


Gases in the blood
Gases in the blood chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies


Factors that affect breathing
Factors that affect Breathing chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies

  • Chemicals, stretching of lung tissues, and emotional states affect breathing

  • Chemosensitive areas are associated with the respiratory center

    • Blood concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions influence the central chemoreceptors

    • Stimulation of these receptors increases breathing rate


Factors that affect breathing cont
Factors that affect Breathing chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies(cont)

  • Peripheral chemoreceptors are in the walls of certain large arteries

    • These chemoreceptors sense low oxygen concentration

    • When oxygen concentration is low, breathing rate increases

  • Overstretching lung tissues triggers an inflation reflex

    • This reflex shortens the duration of inspiratory movements

    • The inflation reflex prevents over inflation of the lungs during forceful breathing


Factors that affect breathing cont1
Factors that affect Breathing chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies(cont)

  • Hyperventilation decreases blood carbon dioxide concentration, but this is very dangerous when done before swimming underwater


Diseases
Diseases chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies

  • Asthma- a lung disease characterized by reversible inflammation and constriction

  • Bronchitis- inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes

  • Emphysema- condition in which the alveoli are inefficient because of distension

  • Pneumonia- inflammation of a lung caused by infection, chemical inhalation, or trauma

  • Tracheostenosis- abnormal narrowing of the trachea



Works cited
Works Cited blood would be too”

  • Category. "How to Make a Lung Model." Biology. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May 2013. <http://biology.about.com/od/biologylabhowtos/ht/lungmodel.htm>

  • Collins, C. Edward . A Short Course in Medical Terminology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006. Print.

  • Shier, David, Jackie Butler, and Ricki Lewis. Hole's essentials of human anatomy and physiology. 9th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Print.

  • Shiland, Betsy J.. "Respiratory System ." Mastering Healthcare Terminology. 2003. Reprint. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier, 2006. 374-409. Print.

  • "Textbook Images." Your Page Title. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May 2013. <http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0218378151/student_view0/chapter16/textbook_images.html>


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