Respiratory system
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Respiratory system. By Briana Campbell & Stacie Walker. Function. Obtaining oxygen and removing Carbon Dioxide are the primary functions The entire process of gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells is called respiration http://youtu.be/p4zOXOM6wgE. Air through the Respiratory System .

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Respiratory system

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Respiratory system

Respiratory system

By Briana Campbell & Stacie Walker


Function

Function

  • Obtaining oxygen and removing Carbon Dioxide are the primary functions

  • The entire process of gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells is called respiration

  • http://youtu.be/p4zOXOM6wgE


Air through the respiratory system

Air through the Respiratory System

  • Nose/Mouth

  • Nasal Cavity

  • Nasopharynx

  • Oropharynx

  • Laryngopharynx

  • Larynx

  • Trachea

  • Bronchi

  • Bronchioles

  • Alveoli

  • Capillaries of lungs


Major organs

Major Organs


Respiratory system

Nose

  • Made of bone and cartilage that support the nose

  • Nostrils are openings for air

  • First line of defense against contaminants in the air

  • Any large particulate matter is filtered out by the nose hairs

  • Separated by nasal septum


Nasal cavity

Nasal Cavity

  • Nasal conch divides the nasal cavity into passage ways to help increase the area of the mucous membrane

  • Filters, warms and moistens incoming air

    • To maintain good health it is necessary to keep the lower respiratory system warm

  • Second line of defense

    • The mucous that coats the lining of the nasal cavity filters out particles that are smaller

  • Ciliary action carries particles trapped in the mucus to the pharynx where they are swallowed


Paranasal sinuses

Paranasal Sinuses

  • Mucous membrane lines the sinus

  • Divided into the

    • frontal

    • maxillary

    • sphenoid

    • ethnoid

  • Named after the bones they are near


Pharynx

Pharynx

  • Behind the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx

  • Passageway for air and food

  • Air is further purified and filtered to eliminate germs and unwanted chemicals


Larynx

Larynx

  • Conducts air and helps prevent foreign objects from entering the trachea

  • The glottis and epiglottis helps prevent foods and liquids from entering the trachea

  • Contains vocal cords which vibrate from side to side to produce sounds


Trachea

Trachea

  • Often called the windpipe

  • Little longer than 4 inches

  • Extends into the thoracic cavity anterior to the esophagus

  • Divides into the right and left bronchi


Bronchial tree

Bronchial tree

  • Branched air passages that lead from the trachea to the air sacs

  • As tubes get smaller they are called bronchioles

  • Alveoli are at the distal ends of the narrowest tubes the alveolar ducts


Alveoli

Alveoli


Lungs

Lungs

  • Soft spongy and cone shaped

  • Mediastinum separates to the left and right lungs

  • Diaphragm and thoracic cage enclose them

  • Viceral pleura attaches to the surface of the lungs

  • Each lobe of the lungs is composed of:

    • Alveoli

    • Blood vessels

    • Supporting tissues


Lungs1

Lungs


Breathing mechanism

Breathing Mechanism

Inspiration

Expiration

  • Atmospheric pressure forces air into the lungs

  • Occurs when the pressure inside the alveoli decreases

  • Breathing in

  • Elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension within alveoli provide the force for expiration

  • Thoracic and abdominal wall muscles aid in expiration

  • Breathing out


Inspiration

Inspiration


Expiration

Expiration


Respiratory center

Respiratory Center

  • Brain stem and portions of the Pons and Medulla Oblongata

  • Pneumotaxic regulates breathing rates


Respiratory system

Decreased blood oxygen concentration stimulates peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies


Respiratory membrane

Respiratory Membrane

  • Consists of alveolar and capillary walls

  • Blood and alveolar air exchange gases across the membrane

  • Inner lining of simple squamous epithelium and a dense network of capillaries


Diffusion

Diffusion

  • Partial pressure of a gas is proportional to the concentration of that gas in a mixture or the concentration dissolved in a liquid

  • Gases diffuse from regions of higher partial pressure toward regions of lower partial pressure

  • Oxygen diffuses from alveolar air into blood

  • Carbon Dioxide diffuses from blood into alveolar air


Oxygen and carbon dioxide

Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

Oxygen

Carbon Dioxide


Oxygen

Oxygen

  • Blood mainly transports oxygen in combination with hemoglobin molecules

  • The resulting oxyhemoglobin is unstable and releases its oxygen in regions where the PO2 is low

  • More oxygen is released as the blood concentration of carbon dioxide increases, as blood becomes more acidic, and as the blood temperature increases


Carbon dioxide

Carbon Dioxide

  • Carbon Dioxide may be carried in solution, bound to hemoglobin, or as a bicarbonate ion

  • Most carbon dioxide is transported in the form of bicarbonate ions

  • The enzyme carbonic anhydrase speeds the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid

  • Carbonic acid dissociates to release hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions


Gases in the blood

Gases in the blood


Factors that affect breathing

Factors that affect Breathing

  • Chemicals, stretching of lung tissues, and emotional states affect breathing

  • Chemosensitive areas are associated with the respiratory center

    • Blood concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions influence the central chemoreceptors

    • Stimulation of these receptors increases breathing rate


Factors that affect breathing cont

Factors that affect Breathing (cont)

  • Peripheral chemoreceptors are in the walls of certain large arteries

    • These chemoreceptors sense low oxygen concentration

    • When oxygen concentration is low, breathing rate increases

  • Overstretching lung tissues triggers an inflation reflex

    • This reflex shortens the duration of inspiratory movements

    • The inflation reflex prevents over inflation of the lungs during forceful breathing


Factors that affect breathing cont1

Factors that affect Breathing (cont)

  • Hyperventilation decreases blood carbon dioxide concentration, but this is very dangerous when done before swimming underwater


Diseases

Diseases

  • Asthma- a lung disease characterized by reversible inflammation and constriction

  • Bronchitis- inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes

  • Emphysema- condition in which the alveoli are inefficient because of distension

  • Pneumonia- inflammation of a lung caused by infection, chemical inhalation, or trauma

  • Tracheostenosis- abnormal narrowing of the trachea


Respiratory system

  • “Roses are red, Violets are blue, without your lungs, your blood would be too”

    -Susan Ott


Works cited

Works Cited

  • Category. "How to Make a Lung Model." Biology. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May 2013. <http://biology.about.com/od/biologylabhowtos/ht/lungmodel.htm>

  • Collins, C. Edward . A Short Course in Medical Terminology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006. Print.

  • Shier, David, Jackie Butler, and Ricki Lewis. Hole's essentials of human anatomy and physiology. 9th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Print.

  • Shiland, Betsy J.. "Respiratory System ." Mastering Healthcare Terminology. 2003. Reprint. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier, 2006. 374-409. Print.

  • "Textbook Images." Your Page Title. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May 2013. <http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0218378151/student_view0/chapter16/textbook_images.html>


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