The nixon administration
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 71

The Nixon Administration, PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 174 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Nixon Administration, . Objectives : 1. Describe Nixon's domestic agenda. 2. Discuss Nixon's foreign policy achievements . Did You Know? . President Nixon rarely talked to Vice President Spiro Agnew about government issues or policies. . Appealing to Middle America.

Download Presentation

The Nixon Administration,

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The nixon administration

The Nixon Administration,

  • Objectives:

  • 1. Describe Nixon's domestic agenda.

  • 2. Discuss Nixon's foreign policy achievements.


Did you know

Did You Know?

  • President Nixon rarely talked to Vice President Spiro Agnew about government issues or policies.


Appealing to middle america

Appealing to Middle America

  • Many Americans supported the government and longed for an end to the violence of the 1960s. The 1968 Republican presidential candidate, Richard Nixon, appealed to the people whom he called "Middle America." He promised them peace in Vietnam, law and order, a streamlined government, and a return to conservative values.

  • The Democratic nominee, Hubert Humphrey, and a third party-candidate, George Wallace, could not stop Nixon. He won, receiving 43.4 percent of the popular vote.


The nixon administration

  • Much of Nixon's success in the election came from the South. Nixon had promised to appoint conservatives to the federal courts, to name a Southerner to the Supreme Court, to oppose court-ordered busing, and to choose a vice president acceptable to the South. As a result, a large number of white Southerners left the Democratic Party and voted for Nixon.

  • After his election victory, Nixon began the Southern strategy to win even more Southerners to the Republican Party. He took steps to slow desegregation.


The nixon administration

  • To keep his promise of law and order, Nixon set out to battle American crime. Nixon criticized the Supreme Court regarding expanded rights for accused criminals. He appointed several conservative judges to the Supreme Court, including one from the South.

  • Nixon's Republican leaders dismantled several federal programs and gave more control to state and local governments. Under Nixon's New Federalism program, Congress passed a series of revenue-sharing bills that provided federal funds to state and local agencies. Intended to give state and local agencies increased power, it actually led to a greater dependency on federal funds.


The nixon administration

  • In 1969 Nixon proposed replacing the existing Aid to Families with Dependant Children (AFDC) welfare program with the Family Assistance Plan. The plan would give needy families a guaranteed yearly grant of $1,600. The program won House approval but was later defeated in the Senate.


The nixon administration

  • Why did Richard Nixon appeal to "Middle America" in the 1968 presidential election?

  • He aimed many of his campaign messages to "Middle America." He promised them "peace with honor" in Vietnam, law and order, a streamlined government, and a return to more conservative times.


Nixon s foreign policy

Nixon's Foreign Policy

  • President Nixon's administration focused mainly on the subject of foreign affairs.

  • Nixon chose former Harvard professor Henry Kissinger as his national security adviser. Nixon and Kissinger put their foreign policy in place and attempted friendlier relations with the Soviet Union and China.


The nixon administration

  • Nixon was anti-Communist but came to reject the idea of a bipolar world with the United States and the Soviet Union confronting each other. Nixon felt the "multipolar" world would need a different approach. With the help of Kissinger, Nixon created the approach of détente, or relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals—the Soviet Union and China. Nixon argued that the United States had to build a better relationship with its rivals to ensure world peace.


The nixon administration

  • To ease tensions with China, Nixon lifted trade and travel restrictions and withdrew the Seventh Fleet from defending Taiwan. In February 1972, Nixon took a historic trip to China, where both leaders agreed to better relations between the nations.

  • After learning of the negotiations between the United States and China, the Soviet Union suggested an American-Soviet summit, or high-level diplomatic meeting, in May 1972. Nixon became the first president to visit the Soviet Union. During the summit, the countries signed the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) to limit nuclear arms. The countries agreed to increase trade and the exchange of scientific information.


The watergate scandal

The Watergate Scandal,

  • Objectives:

  • 1. Describe the character of Richard Nixon and the attitude of his White House.

  • 2. Explain the Watergate scandal and discuss its effects.


Did you know1

Did You Know?

  • Television covered the Senate Watergate hearings from May-November 1973. The hearings were popular among daytime television viewers.


The roots of watergate

The Roots of Watergate

  • The Watergate scandal began as the Nixon administration attempted to cover up its involvement in the break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters, as well as other illegal actions committed during Nixon's re-election campaign.

  • Richard Nixon had become defensive, secretive, and resentful of his critics during his long and difficult climb to the presidency. He went as far as creating an "enemies list," naming people from politicians to members of the media.


The nixon administration

  • In an effort to win re-election, Nixon and his team looked for ways to gain an edge anyway they could. On June 17, 1972, five Nixon supporters broke into the Democratic Party's headquarters to locate campaign information and install wiretaps on telephones. Discovered by a security guard, the burglars were arrested.


The nixon administration

  • One of the burglars, James McCord, was an ex-CIA official and a member of the Committee for the Re-election of the President (CRP). As the questions about the break-ins began, the cover-up started. Although it is thought that Nixon did not order the break-in, it is believed that he did order the cover-up.

  • Most Americans believed the president when he claimed he had no involvement in the break-in, and Nixon won re-election in 1972.


Why was nixon s hope of re election uncertain

Why was Nixon's hope of re-election uncertain?

  • Although he had a high approval rating after the summit meetings, the unpopular Vietnam War still dragged on. Nixon's staff was worried about the close margin of the 1968 victory.


The cover up unravels

The Cover-Up Unravels

  • In 1973 the Watergate burglars went on trial. Defendant James McCord agreed to cooperate with the grand jury investigation and the Senate's Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, established under Senator Sam J. Ervin of North Carolina. McCord's testimony created a floodgate of confessions, and officials and White House staff exposed illegalities.


The nixon administration

  • Counsel to the president, John Dean leveled allegations against Nixon himself. John Dean testified before Senator Erwin's committee that Attorney General John Mitchell ordered the Watergate break-in and Nixon was active in its cover-up.

  • On July 16, White House aide Alexander Butterfield testified that Nixon had ordered a taping system installed in the White House to record all conversations to help him write his memoirs once he left office. These tapes were sought by all groups investigating the scandal. Nixon refused to hand over the tapes, pleading executive privilege—the principle that White House conversations be kept confidential to protect national security.


The nixon administration

  • In the fall of 1973, Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced to resigned after it was discovered he had taken bribes from state contractors while governor of Maryland. The Republican leader of the House of Representatives, Gerald Ford, became the new vice president.

  • Nixon released edited transcripts of the tapes in April 1974, claiming they proved him innocent. Investigators went to court again to force Nixon to turn over unedited tapes. In July the Supreme Court ruled that Nixon had to turn over the unedited tapes.


The nixon administration

  • Nixon released edited transcripts of the tapes in April 1974, claiming they proved him innocent. Investigators went to court again to force Nixon to turn over unedited tapes. In July the Supreme Court ruled that Nixon had to turn over the unedited tapes.

  • The House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach, or officially charge Nixon of presidential misconduct. On one of the tapes was found evidence that Nixon had ordered the CIA to stop the FBI's investigation of the break-in.

  • On August 9, 1974, Nixon resigned, and Gerald Ford became the 38th president of the United States.


What did the house judiciary committee charge against nixon

What did the House Judiciary Committee charge against Nixon?

  • Nixon was charged with obstructing justice in the Watergate cover-up, misuse of federal agencies to violate the rights of citizens, and defying the authority of Congress by not turning over the tapes and other materials the committee had requested.


The impact of watergate

The Impact of Watergate

  • Watergate prompted the implementation of several new laws limiting the power of the executive branch and reestablishing a greater balance of power.

  • The Federal Campaign Act Amendments limited campaign contributions and set up an independent agency to administer stricter election laws.

  • The Ethics in Government Act required financial disclosure by high government officials in all three branches of government.


The nixon administration

  • The FBI Domestic Security Investigation Guidelines restricted the bureau's political intelligence-gathering activities.

  • Watergate left Americans distrustful of public officials. Other Americans felt that Nixon's impeachment and resignation proved that in the United States, no one is above the law.


What did the watergate scandal do to americans

What did the Watergate scandal do to Americans?

  • It left many Americans with a deep distrust of public officials. Some Americans felt that Nixon's impeachment and resignation proved that in the United States, no one is above the law.


Ford and carter

Ford and Carter,

  • Objectives:

  • 1. Explain the reasons for economic troubles in the United States during the 1970s.

  • 2. Discuss Jimmy Carter's domestic and foreign policies.


The nixon administration

  • Gerald Ford −became President in 1974 after Nixon’s resignation

  • pardon − officially forgiveness

  • Jimmy Carter − a former governor of Georgia who was elected President in 1976

  • Christian fundamentalist − a person who believes in a strict, literal interpretation of the Bible as the foundation of the Christian faith


The nixon administration

  • amnesty − political pardon

  • televangelist − minister who preached on television


What accounted for the changes in american attitudes during the 1970s

What accounted for the changes in American attitudes during the 1970s?

  • Compared to the turbulent 1960s, the 1970s appeared uneventful.

  • However, the 1970s brought many social, economic, and cultural changes. Many felt those changes put America on the wrong track.


The economic crisis of the 1970s

The Economic Crisis of the 1970s

  • During the 1970s, the economic prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s began to disappear.

  • The economic troubles began under Lyndon Johnson's leadership. He increased federal deficit spending to fund the Vietnam War and the Great Society program without raising taxes. Pumping large amounts of money into the economy created inflation, or a rise in the cost of goods.


The nixon administration

  • In 1973 the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) announced an embargo, or the stopping of shipping, of petroleum to countries that supported Israel. The price of a barrel of crude oil increased from $3 in 1973 to $30 in 1980.

  • Even before the embargo, President Nixon and Congress imposed price controls on gasoline and heating oil. After OPEC raised its prices, the price controls created an oil shortage.


The nixon administration

  • Increased international competition for manufactured goods added to the economic problems. U.S. factories closed, and workers lost their jobs. The U.S. economy faced "stagflation"—the economic dilemma that combined rising prices with economic stagnation. Nixon focused on controlling inflation by cutting spending and raising taxes. Congress and many Americans opposed Nixon's idea of a tax hike, as well as his other ideas on how to end stagflation.


The nixon administration

  • On September 8, 1974, President Gerald Ford granted a full pardon to Richard Nixon. Ford's approval rating plunged from 71 percent to 50 percent.

  • By 1975 the American economy was in its worst recession since the Great Depression. Ford attempted to revive the economy, but his Whip Inflation Now (WIN) plan failed. He tried to limit federal authority, balance the budget, and keep taxes low. He also vetoed more than 50 bills that Congress had passed during the first two years Ford had served there.


The nixon administration

  • Ford continued the foreign policy of Nixon. In August 1975, Ford met with leaders of NATO and the Warsaw Pact to sign the Helsinki Accords. Under the accords, the parties recognized the borders of Eastern Europe established at the end of World War II. The Soviets promised to uphold certain basic human rights but later went back on this promise, which turned many Americans against détente. Southeast Asia also continued to be a concern for Ford when Cambodia seized an American cargo ship, the Mayaguez.


The nixon administration

  • Vice President Gerald Ford became President after Nixon’s resignation. He faced the worst economic problems that America had experienced since the Great Depression.

  • Although Ford worked hard to solve the country’s problems, his Whip Inflation Now (WIN) program did not succeed. As unemployment grew, his popularity declined rapidly.


The nixon administration

  • The struggling economy and frustrations over Gerald Ford’spardon of Nixon led to Jimmy Carter’s win of the presidential election in 1976.

  • Carter cast himself as an outsider and had the support of Christian fundamentalists.

  • He presented himself as a “citizens’ President” with no ties to professional politicians, which appealed to many voters after the Watergate scandal.


Crises and carter s inexperience reduced the effectiveness of his presidency

Crises and Carter’s inexperience reduced the effectiveness of his presidency.

  • Having no close allies in Washington, his legislative bills in Congress rarely passed without changes.

  • Carter grappled with the energy crisis and inflation.

  • He granted amnesty to Americans who had evaded the draft during the Vietnam War. This was highly unpopular with many Americans.


Carter battles the economic crisis

Carter Battles the Economic Crisis

  • President Carter focused most of his attention on the energy crisis. His efforts were unsuccessful.

  • Carter proposed a national energy program to conserve oil and to promote the use of coal and renewable energy sources. He had Congress create the Department of Energy.He asked Americans to reduce energy consumption, which most Americans ignored.


The nixon administration

  • Scholars have suggested that Carter's difficulties in solving the nation's economic problems were the result of his lack of leadership and inability to work with Congress. A 1979 public opinion poll showed that Carter's popularity had dropped lower than President Nixon's rating during Watergate.


President carter proposes to improve the economy

President Carter proposes to improve the economy

  • He tried to end the recession and reduce unemployment by increasing government spending and cutting taxes.

  • Inflation increased, however, so he decided to delay the tax cuts and vetoed spending programs he had proposed to Congress.

  • He reduced the money supply and raised interest rates


The nixon administration

  • He tried to rally American support for a war against rising energy consumption.

  • He proposed a national energy program to conserve oil and to promote the use of coal and renewable energy sources.

  • He created the Department of Energy. He asked Americans to reduce energy consumption.


The me decade life in the 1970s pg 722

The "Me" Decade: Life in the 1970s pg 722

  • Daily question: answer each question on a separate piece of paper.

  • What fell to an all-time low in 1976?


Did you know2

Did You Know?

  • During the 1970s, children's programming on public broadcasting focused on educational shows, such as Sesame Street and Zoom!


The nixon administration

  • Writer Tom Wolfe labeled the 1970s the "me decade," referring to the self-absorbed attitude of the American people.

  • Some young Americans looked for fulfillment through an array of secular movements and activities that made up the New Age movement. Believers in the movement felt that people were responsible for and capable of everything. They believed spiritual enlightenment could be found in common practices.


The nixon administration

  • Some Americans looked to new religions or cults. Many new religions originated in Asian and centered on the teachings of a guru, or a mystical leader. One of the best known gurus, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, led a religious movement known as transcendental meditation, in which it was thought that with daily meditation and silent repetitive mantras, peak intelligence, harmony, and health could be reached.


The nixon administration

  • By 1970 60 percent of all women between the ages of 16 and 24 had joined the workforce. American family life changed with the increase in women working outside of the home.

  • This resulted in smaller families, parents and children spending less time together, and a rise in divorce rates which nearly doubled.


Why did some young americans look to the new age movement for fulfillment

Why did some young Americans look to the New Age movement for fulfillment?

  • Some young men and women were disenchanted with the conventional religions of their parents.


Fitness

fitness

  • The seventies was also a time of an increased interested in personal fitness.

  • In the 1970 New York marathon, just over 100 people participated, by 1980, more than 14,000 ran the marathon.

  • Body building became popular in large part to Arnold Scharzenegger. He became a popular actor and later would become governor of California.


Cultural trends in the 1970s pg 724

Cultural Trends in the 1970s pg 724

  • Television changed during this time, reflecting many of the changes taking place in society. The Mary Tyler Moore Show placed an unmarried woman with a meaningful career at the center of the show.

  • Taboo subjects like racism were addressed in the 1971 show All in the Family. By carefully mixing humor and sensitive issues while not preaching to the audience, the show made viewers examine their own feelings about social issues.


The nixon administration

  • Taboo subjects like racism were addressed in the 1971 show All in the Family. By carefully mixing humor and sensitive issues while not preaching to the audience, the show made viewers examine their own feelings about social issues.


The nixon administration

  • The music of the 1970s had a softer, more reflective, and less political sound. The rise of disco music became the craze in African American and Latin nightclubs. The fast pace and loud persistent beat attracted fans.


The nixon administration

  • Several other fads became popular during this "me" decade. Skateboards, T-shirts with personalized messages, mood rings, and citizens band (CB) radios all became popular during the 1970s. Fitness was a trend in the 1970s.


Conservatives

Conservatives

  • Many Americans looked to conservative ideas out of fear that society had lost touch with traditional values during the 1960s and 70s.

  • The Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade, which made abortion a constitutional right, and the Supreme Court decisions to limit prayer in schools shocked deeply religious Americans.


The nixon administration

  • Religious conservatives included many different faiths, with the largest being evangelical Protestant Christians.

  • After WWII, a religious revival began with Protestant ministers like Billy Graham, creating a national following. Television enabled Christian evangelicals to reach nationwide audiences.


The nixon administration

  • Televangelists included Pat Robertson, who founded the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN) and Jerry Falwell who used his show The Old Time Gospel Hour to create the movement he called the Moral Majority.


The nixon administration

  • The New conservative coalition of voters shared the belief that American society had lost its way. American had lost faith in their government, lost confidence in the economy, and longed for stability and a return to a better time. Ronald Reagan offered hope to these conservative voters.


Chapter 22 section 3

Chapter 22 Section 3

  • Objectives

  • Compare the policies of Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter toward the Soviet Union.

  • Discuss changing U.S. foreign policy in the developing world.

  • Identify the successes and failures of Carter’s foreign policy in the Middle East.


The nixon administration

Gerald Ford continued Nixon’s policies of détente with the Soviet Union after he took office in 1974.

The United States continued disarmament talkswith the Soviets that led to SALT II.

Ford also endorsed the Helsinki Accords, a document that put major nations on record in support of human rights.


The nixon administration

  • Early in his presidency, Jimmy Carter continued Nixon’s and Ford’s policies toward the Soviet Union.


The u s sought to put the vietnam war in the past

The U.S. sought to put the Vietnam War in the past.

South Vietnam fell to the communists. Many of the boat people eventually found refuge in the United States and Canada.


The nixon administration

  • In June 1979, Carter signed the SALT II arms control treaty despite opposition from many Americans who believed it jeopardized U.S. security. The U.S. Senate held heated debates about whether to vote for the treaty, which angered the Soviet Union.


The nixon administration

  • Despite the signed treaty, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan to support its communist government. Carter withdrew SALT II from Congress and imposed sanctions on the Soviets.


The nixon administration

  • President Carter singled out the Soviet Union as a violator of human rights because of its practice of imprisoning people who protested against the government.

  • Carter responded with an embargo on grain to the Soviet Union and a boycott of the Summer Olympic Games in Moscow.


Carter s foreign policy

Carter's Foreign Policy

  • President Carter's foreign policy focused on human rights.

  • Carter won Senate ratification of two Panama Canal treaties, which transferred control of the canal to Panama on December 31, 1999.


The nixon administration

  • In 1978 Carter helped get a historic peace treaty, known as the Camp David Accords, signed between Israel and Egypt. Most Arab nations in the region opposed the treaty, but it marked the first step toward peace in the Middle East.


The nixon administration

Egypt became the first Arab nation to officially recognize the nation of Israel.


The nixon administration

  • In 1979 Iran's monarch, the Shah, was forced to flee, and an Islamic republic was declared. The Shah was supported by the United States.

  • The religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini distrusted the U. S.

  • Revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The hostages would not be released until Carter's last day in office, some 444 days in captivity.


Daily question

Daily Question

  • What popular exercise was a way to achieve fitness without the drudgery and isolation that often accompanies exercise?


The nixon administration

The hostage crisis showed that the Soviet Union was no longer the only threat to America.

Conflicts in the Middle East threatened to become the greatest foreign policy challenge for the United States.


What were president carter s foreign policy successes

What were President Carter's foreign policy successes?

  • President Carter's foreign policy focused on human rights. Carter won Senate ratification of two Panama Canal treaties, which transferred control of the canal to Panama on December 31, 1999.

  • He singled out the Soviet Union as a violator of human rights because of its practice of imprisoning people who protested against the government. Carter placed an embargo on grain to the Soviet Union and a boycott of the Summer Olympic Games in Moscow. In 1978 Carter helped get a historic peace treaty signed between Israel and Egypt, known as the Camp David Accords.


  • Login