Terminology
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Terminology. Body Location Terms. Anatomical position – person standing straight upright or erect with the feet facing forward, arms at the side, with palms of the hands facing forward. All directional terms start from this position. Body Location Terms.

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Body location terms
Body Location Terms

  • Anatomical position – person standing straight upright or erect with the feet facing forward, arms at the side, with palms of the hands facing forward. All directional terms start from this position.


Body location terms1
Body Location Terms

  • Frontal Plane – cutting the body onto front and back portions

  • Sagittal Plane - cutting the body into Right and left portions

  • Transverse Plane - cutting the body into top and bottom parts


Body location terms2
Body Location Terms

  • Anterior - front of body – example is your patella and your palm of your hand are on the anterior portion of your body

  • Posterior – opposite of anterior - back side of the body – example is tip of your elbow and your back muscles are on the posterior portion of your body


Body location terms3
Body Location Terms

  • Medial - Body part lying near the midline of the body. Example your 5th finger/pinky is the most medial finger. Another example – is start at your big toe and run your hand along the side of your foot – this is your medial side of your foot also know as your medial arch.

  • Lateral – opposite of medial – the body part lying away from the midline of the body. Example your thumb is your most lateral finger.


Body location terms4
Body Location terms

  • Proximal - Point closest to a joint or attachment – your elbow is more proximal to the shoulder than your wrist

  • Distal – opposite of proximal - Point farthest from a joint or attachment – your finger tips are distal to your knuckles


Body location terms5
Body Location Terms

  • Inferior - Body part below another body part - your ankle is inferior to your knee

  • Superior – opposite of inferior - above another body part. Your chest is superior to your abdomen


Body location terms6
Body Location Terms

  • Supine – means to lie or be placed with the anterior surface facing up – example lying on your back

  • Prone – means to lie or be placed with the anterior facing down – example lying on your stomach


Body location terms7
Body Location Terms

  • Superficial – toward or on the surface

  • Deep – away from the surface, internal


Body terms
Body Terms

  • Muscle – soft tissue structure that has contractile abilities – muscles move our bones creating movement

  • Tendon – soft tissue structure that connects the muscle belly to the bone

  • Ligament – soft tissue structure that attaches bone to bone, helping secure a joint


Body terms1
Body Terms

  • Bone – a hard tissue that gives our body structure and a place for ligaments and tendons to attach

  • Joint – point of where to bones join together. Example your elbow, shoulder. Even your skull bones form joints.

  • Diarthrodial Jt.(Synovial) – freely moveable joint like – your knee, shoulder, ankle


Body terms2
Body Terms

  • Hyaline Cartilage – cartilage that lies on the end of bones

  • Fibrous Cartilage – cartilage that helps to bones in a joint become congruent – example is the meniscus in your knee or the glenoid labrum in your shoulder

  • Elastic Cartilage – cartilage that is flexible – example is the cartilage in your nose and ears


Body terms3
Body Terms

  • Hypertrophy – definition is your muscle getting bigger/stronger, more defined

  • Atrophy – definition is your muscles getting smaller/weaker less defined


Injury terms
Injury Terms

  • Sprain – injury to a ligament

  • Strain – injury to a tendon or muscle

  • Cramp – a painful continuous involuntary muscle contraction


Injury terms1
Injury Terms

  • Dislocation – when the two bones that are connected forming a joint dislodge from one another – your finger and shoulder are the most common joints injured

  • Fracture – when a bone breaks or cracks

  • Abrasion – scraping off a layer of skin


Injury terms2
Injury Terms

  • Laceration – jagged cut through the skin

  • Incision – a precise cut through the skin

  • Avulsion – tearing of soft tissue or bone away of a body part


Injury terms3
Injury Terms

  • Puncture – foreign object that pierces the body causing a hole in the skin

  • Contrecoup - Injury that occurs on the opposite side of the initial injury (i.e. Brain)

  • Contusion - Closed wound commonly called a bruise – caused when you have a blow to the soft tissue or bone of the body


Injury terms4
Injury Terms

  • Diplopia – double vision

  • Edema – swelling

  • Ecchymosis – bleeding under the skin


Movement terms
Movement Terms

  • Flexion – a joint that bends or moves forward – example – your elbow or knee joint bending. Your shoulder or hip moving forward.

  • Extension –– a joint that straightens or moves backwards. Example your elbow or knee straightening or your hip and shoulder moving backwards. This is the opposite term of flexion.


Movement terms1
Movement Terms

  • Abduction – pulling your arm, legs, fingers away from the midline of the body. i.e. spreading your fingers apart. This is done in the frontal plane

  • Adduction – pulling your arms, legs, fingers toward the midline. This is done in the frontal plane. Opposite of abduction


Movement terms2
Movement Terms

  • Horizontal adduction – pulling your shoulder/arm across the body – this is done in the transverse plane

  • Pronation - turning your forearm until your palm is facing down

  • Supination –– turning your forearm until your palm is facing up. This is the opposite term of pronation


Movement terms3
Movement Terms

  • Rotation - turning on a axis in an angular motion – example turning your head

  • Circumduction – moving your shoulder or hip in a circular motion


Movement terms4
Movement Terms

  • Protraction – pulling your shoulder forwards

  • Retraction - pulling shoulder blades backwards


Movement terms5
Movement Terms

  • Inversion - turning or pulling your sole of your foot inward

  • Eversion – this is the opposite term of inversion – turning or pulling your sole of your foot outward


Movement terms6
Movement Terms

  • Plantarflexion – the motion of pointing your foot downwards

  • Dorsiflexion – the motion of pointing your foot upwards. Opposite of plantar flexion


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