Applying Dendrochronology
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Applying Dendrochronology in Environmental Studies of Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Productivity. Paul R. Sheppard. Perturbations in N Cycle. Natural fixation: 140 Human fixation: 140 Mostly fertilizers Then legumes Plus cars, factories

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Paul r sheppard

Applying DendrochronologyinEnvironmental Studies of Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Productivity

Paul R. Sheppard


Perturbations in n cycle

Perturbations inN Cycle

  • Natural fixation: 140

  • Human fixation: 140

    • Mostly fertilizers

    • Then legumes

    • Plus cars, factories

  • Essential fact: N fixation is doubled now


N deposition not equal globally

N Deposition Not Equal Globally


Nitrogen saturation

Nitrogen Saturation

Too much of a good thing is not a good thing

  • Nutrient imbalances

    • Plant growth decline

  • Nitrate leaching into drinking water

  • Trace gas emissions

    Not certain of the impact of the grand N perturbation on forest productivity


Dendro soils field methods

Dendro-Soils Field Methods

  • Collect tree cores as usual

  • Collect soils data for each tree

    • Whole soil samples

    • Nutrient availability from IER

  • Careful mapping of trees within site

  • Normal physiographic information

  • Associate tree growth trends with soil/geomorphic properties, N


Field use of resins

Field Useof Resins

  • Bury in root zone

    • How many per tree?

    • Distance from trunk?

    • Depth?

    • Rocks!

  • Working on this now

Key point: like root absorption of nutrients


Dendro environmental n studies

Dendro Environmental N Studies

  • Sites with sluggish natural N cycling

  • Along a steep gradient of N deposition

  • SoCal/Baja:

    • Old trees

    • Subalpine sites

    • Poor soils

    • Huge Ngradient


On a clear day in san gorgonio

On a Clear Day in San Gorgonio


Not much better over san jacinto

Not Much Better Over San Jacinto


San jacinto chronologies

San Jacinto Chronologies


Paul r sheppard

One-way ANOVA: 1950-70s versus hllslp5

Analysis of Variance for 1950-70s

Source DF SS MS F P

hllslp5 4 0.000881 0.000220 1.97 0.109

Error 66 0.007368 0.000112

Total 70 0.008249

Individual 95% CIs For Mean

Based on Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev ----------+---------+---------+------

1flats 8 0.00661 0.01564 (--------*---------)

2toeslp 6 0.00114 0.00978 (---------*----------)

3midslp 41 0.00100 0.00969 (---*---)

4shldr 10 0.00661 0.00540 (-------*--------)

5sumsad 6 0.01185 0.01523 (----------*----------)

----------+---------+---------+------

Pooled StDev = 0.01057 0.0000 0.0080 0.0160


Paul r sheppard

One-way ANOVA: 1950-70s versus midslopes

Analysis of Variance for 1950-70s

Source DF SS MS F P

midslope 1 0.000767 0.000767 7.07 0.010

Error 69 0.007482 0.000108

Total 70 0.008249

Individual 95% CIs For Mean

Based on Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev ------+---------+---------+---------+

1midslop 47 0.00100 0.00921 (-------*------)

2others 24 0.00795 0.01248 (----------*---------)

------+---------+---------+---------+

Pooled StDev = 0.01041 0.0000 0.0040 0.0080 0.0120


Paul r sheppard

One-way ANOVA: 1950-70s versus mislopetoe

Analysis of Variance for 1950-70s

Source DF SS MS F P

mislopet 1 0.000809 0.000809 7.50 0.008

Error 69 0.007440 0.000108

Total 70 0.008249

Individual 95% CIs For Mean

Based on Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev ----+---------+---------+---------+--

1midslop 51 0.00124 0.00929 (----*-----)

2others 20 0.00874 0.01283 (--------*---------)

----+---------+---------+---------+--

Pooled StDev = 0.01038 0.0000 0.0050 0.0100 0.0150


Paul r sheppard

One-way ANOVA: NO3-N versus midslopes

Analysis of Variance for NO3-N

Source DF SS MS F P

midslope 1 0.1 0.1 0.00 0.964

Error 69 2381.0 34.5

Total 70 2381.0

Individual 95% CIs For Mean

Based on Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev ------+---------+---------+---------+

1midslop 47 4.517 5.783 (----------*-----------)

2others 24 4.583 6.052 (---------------*---------------)

------+---------+---------+---------+

Pooled StDev = 5.874 3.0 4.5 6.0 7.5


Paul r sheppard

One-way ANOVA: NH4-N versus midslopes

Analysis of Variance for NH4-N

Source DF SS MS F P

midslope 1 69 69 0.63 0.430

Error 69 7589 110

Total 70 7658

Individual 95% CIs For Mean

Based on Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev -------+---------+---------+---------

1midslop 47 16.44 11.26 (---------*---------)

2others 24 14.35 8.73 (-------------*-------------)

-------+---------+---------+---------

Pooled StDev = 10.49 12.0 15.0 18.0


Paul r sheppard

One-way ANOVA: K versus midslopes

Analysis of Variance for K

Source DF SS MS F P

midslope 1 19390 19390 4.02 0.049

Error 69 332577 4820

Total 70 351967

Individual 95% CIs For Mean

Based on Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev -----+---------+---------+---------+-

1midslop 47 127.89 78.07 (-------*-------)

2others 24 92.96 47.64 (----------*----------)

-----+---------+---------+---------+-

Pooled StDev = 69.43 75 100 125 150


Paul r sheppard

One-way ANOVA: Ca versus midslopes

Analysis of Variance for Ca

Source DF SS MS F P

midslope 1 7.371 7.371 8.66 0.004

Error 69 58.709 0.851

Total 70 66.080

Individual 95% CIs For Mean

Based on Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev -------+---------+---------+---------

1midslop 47 1.6157 0.9235 (-----*------)

2others 24 0.9346 0.9202 (--------*---------)

-------+---------+---------+---------

Pooled StDev = 0.9224 0.80 1.20 1.60


Paul r sheppard

One-way ANOVA: Mg versus midslopes

Analysis of Variance for Mg

Source DF SS MS F P

midslope 1 0.1719 0.1719 7.79 0.007

Error 69 1.5220 0.0221

Total 70 1.6938

Individual 95% CIs For Mean

Based on Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev ----+---------+---------+---------+--

1midslop 47 0.3223 0.1509 (------*------)

2others 24 0.2183 0.1436 (---------*---------)

----+---------+---------+---------+--

Pooled StDev = 0.1485 0.180 0.240 0.300 0.360


Paul r sheppard

One-way ANOVA: Na versus midslopes

Analysis of Variance for Na

Source DF SS MS F P

midslope 1 0.0002700 0.0002700 5.56 0.021

Error 69 0.0033497 0.0000485

Total 70 0.0036197

Individual 95% CIs For Mean

Based on Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev -------+---------+---------+---------

1midslop 47 0.017872 0.006896 (-------*--------)

2others 24 0.013750 0.007109 (----------*----------)

-------+---------+---------+---------

Pooled StDev = 0.006968 0.0125 0.0150 0.0175


Paul r sheppard

One-way ANOVA: IER NO3-N versus midslopes

Analysis of Variance for IER NO3-

Source DF SS MS F P

midslope 1 475.8 475.8 4.76 0.034

Error 53 5297.0 99.9

Total 54 5772.7

Individual 95% CIs For Mean

Based on Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev -+---------+---------+---------+-----

1midslop 36 10.688 11.065 (--------*-------)

2others 19 4.503 7.498 (----------*-----------)

-+---------+---------+---------+-----

Pooled StDev = 9.997 0.0 4.0 8.0 12.0


Paul r sheppard

  • Conclusions

  • Site selection

  • Tree selection

  • Ring-width processing

  • Soil measurements

  • Site chronologies have internal variability


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