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C ommunication Disorders. “Communication is a universal process by which human being exchange ideas, impact, feelings and express needs” (Adkins, 1991) Communication occurs in a variety of ways,

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“Communication is a universal process by which human being exchange ideas, impact, feelings and express needs” (Adkins, 1991)

  • Communication occurs in a variety of ways,
  • Drama, literature, music and arts. It is verbal or nonverbal, and there are both sending and receiving components.
  • Stroke, or cerebrovascular accident is the most common cause of impaired communication.
  • Most common occurrence in older adult men and in the African American population
  • Perceptual deficits such as neglect and denial as well as spatial disturbances may also affect persons ability to communicate
  • The most residual deficits of a stroke is a problem with language
  • Language involves not only speaking but also conveying and comprehending thoughts and ideas
  • A communication problem either with speaking, writing, or understanding
  • It may be defined as a multiple-modality loss of language ability
  • Usually caused by damage to the dominant hemisphere
  • It is necessary to determine which type of aphasia-expressive or receptive-is present
expressive aphasia
Expressive Aphasia
  • the function of language primarily resides in the left hemisphere of the brain
  • Most often when an injury affects the dominant cerebral hemisphere the result is EA.
  • It occurs when an injury damages the inferior frontal gyrus, just anterior to the facial and lingual areas of the motor cortex
teaching strategies
Teaching strategies
  • Working with EA, you might try having the person recall word images, first by naming commonly used objects and those objects in the immediate environment
  • Let the person repeat words spoken by the nurse
  • Keep the sessions short
receptive aphasia
Receptive Aphasia
  • Wernicke’s area of the brain is located in the temporal bone and is needed for auditory and reading comprehension
  • When this area affected, persons are left with Receptive Aphasia
  • Their hearing is unimpaired, they are nevertheless unable to understand the significance of the spoken word.
  • Speech therapy should be one of the earliest intervention
teaching strategies1
Teaching Strategies
  • Working with RA you need to establish a means for nonverbal communication
  • Speak more slowly and slightly louder to the person
  • Keep your teaching session filled with praise and always acknowledge the client’s frustration
  • Speak slowly
  • Don’t use baby talk
  • Speak in normal tones
  • Speak in slow, short, and simple sentence
  • Allow the person time to answer
  • Be patient
  • Is a problem with voluntary muscle control of speech
  • It occurs as a consequence of damage to the central or peripheral nervous system and affect the same muscles used in eating and speaking.
teaching strategy
Teaching Strategy
  • Be sure the environment is quiet
  • Ask the speaker to repeat unclear parts of the message
  • Do not simplify your message
  • Ask question that need only short answer
  • Encourage person to use more oral movement to produce each syllable and to speak more loudly
  • Ask the patient who is unintelligible to gesture, write or point to messages on a communication board
  • Cancer in the larynx is five times more common in men than in women
  • Esophageal speech was the primary method in speaking after a laryngectomy
  • ES involves taking air into the upper part of the esophagus and adopting its normal sphincters to vibrate like vocal chords
  • Tracheosophageal speech is more rapid restoration of speech. The person must rely on prosthesis and the tracheosophageal fistula may undergo stenosis
teaching strategies2
Teaching Strategies
  • Watch the speakers lips
  • Do not alter your message
  • If you don’t understand the speaker. Repeat what you think the person said, and ask for more information
  • Seek a quiet environment

Articulation Disorders- impairment of the ability to articulate speech sounds.

  • Fluency Disorders- interruption in the flow speaking characterized by atypical rate, rhythm and repetition of sounds, syllables, words and phrases. This may be accompanied by excessive tension, struggle behavior and secondary characteristics.
  • Voice Disorders- abnormal production of vocal quality, pitch, loudness and resonance compared to an individual’s age or sex.

Phonological Disorders- abnormal development of sound system of the language and the rules that govern sound combinations. This results in difficulty producing age expected speech sounds.

  • Language Disorders- impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken and written language. This disorder may include difficulty with
  • Semitics- meaning of language
  • Syntax- grammatical construction of language
  • Pragmatics- social use of language, includes conversational skills
  • Phonological awareness- knowledge of the sound structure of language, reading, spelling, and writing

Cleft Palate- birth defect in which there is an opening through the soft palate and the bony roof of the mouth. A cleft is surgically repaired in infancy. It may result in hypernasality and various articulation disorders.