Writing introductory and concluding paragraphs requires the ability to summarize and generalize info...
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The introduction usually consists of three sentences

Writing introductory and concluding paragraphs requires the ability to summarize and generalize information. Introductions must engage readers’ interest and tell them what is to follow. Introductions set out the topic of composition, which is usually embedded in the thesis statement. The thesis statement must clearly state the writer’s objective, and the writer must provide sufficient support for the statement in the body of a composition.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

  • The introduction usually consists of three sentences:

  • Please pay careful attention to the following

    G. S. T format.

  • General Statement (G.S.): states the theme or topic of the essay

  • Specific Statement (Sp. St.): states details that deals with the topic

  • Thesis Statement (Th. St.): states the specific topic and provides the plan of explanation and organization


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

Example Introduction: This is a very simple and generic introduction, but we must start small and expand.

  • Many schools are using different educational models. New Dorp High School uses the SLC model in Staten Island. There are many positive aspects of the SLC model, but the model also has its flaws.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

Many schools are using different educational models.This first sentence is the General Statement because it introduces the topic, which is the educational models.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

  • New Dorp High School uses the SLC model in Staten Island.The second sentence is the Specific Statement because it gives specific details about the topic.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

  • There are many positive aspects of the SLC model, but the model also has its flaws. The third sentence is the Thesis Statement because it shows the specific topic of the essay which is the positive and negative aspects of the SLC model.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

(Sp. St.)

Example A

  • _____ Every year, my family plans to take a very exciting vacation, but somehow we always end up staying home.

  • _____ Many people enjoy their summer vacation at home.

  • _____ Being at home all summer definitely has some disadvantages, but there are many advantages as well.

(G.S.)

(Th. St.)


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

(Sp. St.)

Example B

  • _____ Peter the Great was an absolute ruler that changed his country during the later 1600’s.

  • _____ Absolute monarchs brought many changes to their country.

  • _____ Two achievements of Peter the Great were westernization and economic reforms.

(G.S.)

(Th. St.)


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

(G.S.)

Example C

  • _____ In the past presidents have been remembered for countless accomplishments.

  • _____ Two of Jefferson’s legacies were the Louisiana Purchase and a series of democratic reforms.

  • _____ Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States, is remembered for many achievements.

(Th. St.)

(Sp. St.)


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

(Sp. St.)

Example D

  • _____ One topic that definitely captured public interest is immigration.

  • _____ Recently, several newspaper commentaries have addressed controversial topics.

  • _____ Many Americans are for immigration reforms while others are against them.

(G.S.)

(Th. St.)


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

(Sp. St.)

Example E

  • _____ The people of England were constantly fighting against the abuses of absolute monarchs.

  • _____ Two documents that have changed the course of the history of England are the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights.

  • _____ Many documents have had a lasting impact on history.

(Th. St.)

(G.S.)


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

(G.S.)

Example F

  • _____ Many people use social networking sites.

  • _____ Facebook is a social networking site that is used as a means of communication.

  • _____ Although Facebook is a popular website; there are some things about using the website that can be dangerous.

(Sp. St.)

(Th. St.)


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

  • Identifying the difference between the general, specific and thesis statements are essential to developing the writing skills for not only regular essays, but AP essays as well.

  • Based on this model, you should have one general statement, one specific statement and one thesis. But FOR AP, it MUST be a little more complex.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

  • What is a thesis?

  • Tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.

  • it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.

  • Directly answers the question asked of you.

  • Is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

  • How do I know if my thesis is strong?

  • Do I answer the question?

  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like "good" or "successful," see if you could be more specific: Why is something "good"; What makes something "successful"?

  • Does my thesis pass the 'So What?' test? If a reader's first response is, "So what?" then you need to clarify.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

  • How do I know if my thesis is strong?

  • Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.

  • Does my thesis pass the how or why test? If a reader's first response is "how? or why? your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

Example

Compare and contrast the reasons why the North and South fought the Civil War.

Weak Thesis: The North and South fought the Civil War for many reasons, some of which were the same and some different.

This weak thesis restates the question without providing any additional information. It is important that the reader know where you are heading. A reader of this weak thesis might think, "What reasons? How are they the same? How are they different?" Ask yourself these same questions and begin to compare Northern and Southern attitudes Now, push your comparison toward an interpretation-why did one side think slavery was right and the other side think it was wrong? You look again at the evidence and you decide the North believed slavery was immoral while the South believed it upheld their way of life.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

Example

Compare and contrast the reasons why the North and South fought the Civil War.

Working Thesis: While both sides fought the Civil War over the issue of slavery, the North fought for moral reasons while the South fought to preserve its own institutions.

Included in this working thesis is a reason for the war and some idea of how the two sides disagreed over this reason. As you write the essay, you will probably begin to characterize these differences more precisely and your working thesis may seem vague. Maybe you decide that both sides fought for moral reasons, they just saw morality in different contexts. You end up revising the working thesis into a final thesis that really captures the argument in your paper.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

Example

Compare and contrast the reasons why the North and South fought the Civil War.

Final Thesis: While both Northerners and Southerners believed they fought against tyranny and oppression, Northerners focused on the oppression of slaves while Southerners defended their own rights to property and self-government.

There isn't a right answer; there are only strong and weak thesis statements and strong and weak uses of evidence.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

2006 AP Exam Comparative Essay Question

Compare and contrast the goals and outcomes of the revolutionary process in TWO of the following countries, beginning with the dates specified.

Mexico 1910

China 1911

Russia 1917


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

There was no thesis found in this paragraph because it does not identify where the difference lies.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

This is the last paragraph of the essay and where the strong thesis was found.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

  • The use of certain words can help create the start of your thesis argument:

  • Although

  • While

  • Even though

  • These three words offer an argumentative tone, which is what your thesis will attempt to do:


Example topic classical empires

Example Topic: Classical Empires

  • Although the Gupta Empire and the Roman Empire had developed into prosperous periods; the Gupta fell to internal problems while Rome fell because of outside invasions and economic struggles.

  • While the rise of the Augustus Caesar led to the Pax Romana in Rome, his death would eventually lead Rome toward a chaotic period in Roman history.

  • Even though the Han Dynasty left a lasting impact on the cultural achievements of China, the abusive government would create a period of chaos that would last for four hundred years after its fall.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

Practice AP Question:

Compare and contrast the development of civilizations in TWO of the following early civilizations:

Middle East

South Asia

East Asia

North Africa


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

Practice AP Question:

Compare and contrast the development of civilizations in TWO of the following early civilizations:

Middle East (Mesopotamia)

South Asia (India)

East Asia (China)

North Africa (Egypt)


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

  • How to Write a Conclusion

  • The function of a conclusion is to restate and reinforce the thesis statement of the composition. To do this, a concluding paragraph can: summarize what has been stated previously in the composition; offer a solution or recommendation; justify a position; or present a point of view.

  • In order to write a conclusion, you must still use a General Statement, a Specific Statement and a Thesis Statement. The order and wording should be different in your conclusion than it was in your introduction.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

  • The thesis statement from the introduction should be rephrased and placed as the first sentence in the concluding paragraph.

  • The second sentence in the concluding paragraph should be a specific statement. This statement can be rephrased from your introduction or be a new specific statement.

  • The third sentence in the concluding paragraph should be a general statement. This statement can also be rephrased from your introduction or be a new general statement. Both the specific and general statements should relate to and expand on statements from the introduction.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

Introduction

Conclusion


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

Example Introduction II

  • Thomas Jefferson is remembered for countless accomplishments during his presidency. Many consider the acquisition of Louisiana Territory from France as his outstanding achievement. As a result of the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson significantly increased the size of the United States.

    Example Conclusion II

  • Ultimately, the presidency of Thomas Jefferson dramatically transformed the landscape of the United States. The purchasing of the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon was Jefferson’s most notable accomplishment. Because of his numerous achievements, Thomas Jefferson will be remembered as one of the greatest president’s in the history of the United States.


The introduction usually consists of three sentences

What do I need to get points on the essay?

  • Please pay close attention to the directive words in the essay questions.

  • Ignoring directives will result in a low exam score.

  • The following directions may be included:

  • Analyze: determine their component parts, exam their nature and relationship.

  • Assess/Evaluate: judge the value or character of something, appraise, evaluate the positive and negative points, give an opinion regarding the value of; discuss the advantages or disadvantages of...

  • Compare: examine for the purpose of noting similarities or differences

  • Contrast: examine in order to show dissimilarities or points of difference

  • Describe: give an account of; tell about; give a word picture of

  • Discuss: talk over, write about, consider or examine by argument or from various points of view, debate, present the different sides of

  • Explain: make clear or plain, make clear the causes and reasons for; make known in detail; tell the meaning of


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