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Understanding Food. Chapter 11: Milk. The basic composition of milk regardless of the source remains the same: Water 87.3% Carbohydrate 4.8% Protein 3.4% Fat 3.7% Minerals 0.8%. Composition of Milk. Composition of Milk.

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understanding food

Understanding Food

Chapter 11:


composition of milk
The basic composition of milk regardless of the source remains the same:

Water 87.3%

Carbohydrate 4.8%

Protein 3.4%

Fat 3.7%

Minerals 0.8%

Composition of Milk
composition of milk1
Composition of Milk
  • Casein:The primary protein (80%) found in milk; it can be precipitated (solidified out of solution) with acid or certain enzymes.
  • Whey:The liquid portion of milk, consisting primarily of 93% water, lactose, and whey proteins (primarily lactalbumin and lactoglobulin).
purchasing milk
Purchasing Milk
  • Milk is graded according to its bacterial count.
  • The law requires that all Grade A milk and milk products crossing state lines must be pasteurized.
  • Grading is voluntary and is paid for by the dairy industry.
purchasing milk1
Purchasing Milk
  • Ultrapasteurization:A process in which a milk product is heated at or above 280°F (138°C) for at least two seconds.
  • Ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) Milk:Milk that has been pasteurized using very high temperatures, is aseptically sealed, and is capable of being stored unrefrigerated for up to three months.
purchasing milk2
Purchasing Milk
  • Homogenization:A mechanical process that breaks up the fat globules in milk into much smaller globules that do not clump together and are permanently dispersed in a very fine emulsion.
types of milk
Types of Milk
  • About half the milk produced in the United States is sold as fluid milk and cream.
  • Imitation milk:A product defined by the FDA as having the appearance, taste, and function of its original counterpart but as being nutritionally inferior.
types of milk1
Types of Milk
  • Evaporated milk
    • 60% of water evaporated
    • sterilized
  • Sweetened condensed milk
    • 50% of water evaporated
    • 40-45% sugar by weight
    • Sterilzation not needed
types of milk2
Types of Milk
  • Cultured or fermented milk products have been used for centuries.
  • Some cultured milk products commonly consumed in North America are:
    • Buttermilk
    • Yogurt
    • Acidophilus milk
types of milk3
Types of Milk
  • Probiotics:Live microbial food ingredients (i.e., bacteria) that have a beneficial effect on human health.
  • Prebiotics:Nondigestible food ingredients (generally fibers such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin) that support the growth of probiotics.
milk products in food preparation
Milk Products in Food Preparation

Flavor Changes

  • The bland, slightly sweet flavor of milk comes from its lactose, salts, sulfur compounds, and short-chain fatty acids.
  • The percentage of fat determines the mouthfeel and body of a particular milk.
  • Exposure to heat or sunlight, oxidation, the use of copper equipment or utensils, and the feed ingested by the source animal are just some of the other factors that can influence the flavor of milk.
milk products in food preparation1
Milk Products in Food Preparation
  • Coagulation and precipitation
  • Scorching
  • Skin formation
  • Acid
  • Curdling
milk products in food preparation2
Milk Products in Food Preparation

Whipped Milk Products

  • During whipping, the protein in these milk products is mechanically stretched into thin layers that trap air bubbles, fat particles, and liquid.
storage of milk products
Storage of Milk Products


  • All fluid milk except unopened, aseptic packs of ultrahigh-temperature pasteurized milk and certain canned milk products should be stored in the refrigerator.
storage of milk products1
Storage of Milk Products

Dry Storage

  • Nonfat dry milk stored away from moisture and in tightly closed containers will keep for about one year.
  • Unopened cans of evaporated and sweetened condensed milks will keep up to a year in dry, ventilated areas, double that if refrigerated.
  • Ultrapasteurized milk can be stored unopened at room temperature for up to three months.
  • They should all be stored at or slightly below room temperature (72°F/22°C).
  • Once opened, all these milks must be refrigerated.