Understanding Food. Chapter 14: Meat. Types of Meats. Beef Cattle are classified according to age and gender . Steers are male cattle that have been castrated while young so that they will gain weight quickly.
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Veal comes from calves of beef cattle, either male or female, between the ages of three weeks and three months.
Lamb and Mutton
Structure of Meat
Tenderness of Meats
The particular cut of the meat
Age at slaughter (connective tissue concentration)
Heredity and diet
…all play a part in determining tenderness
Rigor mortis:From the Latin for “stiffness of death,” the temporary stiff state following death as muscles contract.
Aging:Ripening that occurs when carcasses are hung in refrigeration units for longer periods than that required for the reversal of rigor mortis.
Prior to reaching the supermarket, a carcass is divided into about seven wholesaleor primal cuts.
Wholesale (primal) cuts:The large cuts of an animal carcass, which are further divided into retail cuts.
These wholesale cuts are then divided into the retail cutspurchased by consumers.
Retail cuts:Smaller cuts of meat obtained from wholesale cuts and sold to the consumer.
Refer to p. 263 for complete figure.
F I G U R E 1 4 - 1 8 Touch as a test for doneness.
Types and Styles of Poultry
“Type” refers to whether it is:
“Style” describes the degree to which it has been cleaned or processed:
Eviscerate:To remove the entrails from the body cavity.
How Much to Buy
Preparation Safety Tips
Thawing Frozen Poultry
Changes During Preparation
Poultry should always be heated until well done
Doneness may be determined by internal temperature, color changes, and/or touch and time/weight tables.
Poultry is sufficiently cooked when the internal temperature reaches 180° to 185°F (82° to 85°C).
A thermometer placed in the center of any stuffing must reach a minimum temperature of 165°F (74°C).
Also called fricasseeing
The microwave manufacturers’ instructions should be followed for preparing poultry.
Frozen whole poultry can be stored from six to twelve months at 0°F (18°C).
Breaded or fried poultry should never be thawed and refrozen.
Defrosting is recommended in the refrigerator.
Once defrosted, poultry or any other meat should not be refrozen unless it has been cooked.
Finfish:Fish that have fins and internal skeletons.
Shellfish, which includes the invertebrate crustaceansand mollusks.
Crustacean:An invertebrate animal with a segmented body covered by an exoskeleton consisting of a hard upper shell and a soft under shell.
Mollusk:An invertebrate animal with a soft unsegmented body usually enclosed in a shell.
Salt or Fresh Water
Saltwater fish often have a more distinct flavor than freshwater fish.
Some saltwater fish:
Halibut, cod, and flounder
Some freshwater varieties:
Catfish, perch, and pike
Lean or Fat
Fish are not very fatty compared to most other meats.
Structure of Finfish
Signs of Decay in Fresh Finfish
How Much Fish to Buy
Clambakes are underground steamings.
Sashimi (raw fish)
Fresh fish are best consumed within a day or two of purchase.
Fish should be stored in the coldest portion of the refrigerator.
It should also be tightly wrapped to prevent odors from coming in contact with other foods.
Fresh shellfish should be eaten the day they are bought.
Crabs, usually sold precooked, should be stored in the coldest part of the refrigerator and used within a day or two.