Understanding Food. Chapter 14: Meat. Types of Meats. Beef Cattle are classified according to age and gender . Steers are male cattle that have been castrated while young so that they will gain weight quickly.
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Veal comes from calves of beef cattle, either male or female, between the ages of three weeks and three months.
Lamb and Mutton
Structure of Meat
Tenderness of Meats
The particular cut of the meat
Age at slaughter (connective tissue concentration)
Heredity and diet
…all play a part in determining tenderness
Rigor mortis:From the Latin for “stiffness of death,” the temporary stiff state following death as muscles contract.
Aging:Ripening that occurs when carcasses are hung in refrigeration units for longer periods than that required for the reversal of rigor mortis.Purchasing Meats
Wholesale (primal) cuts:The large cuts of an animal carcass, which are further divided into retail cuts.
These wholesale cuts are then divided into the retail cutspurchased by consumers.
Retail cuts:Smaller cuts of meat obtained from wholesale cuts and sold to the consumer.Purchasing Meats
F I G U R E 1 4 - 1 8 Touch as a test for doneness.
How Much to Buy
Preparation Safety Tips
Thawing Frozen Poultry
Changes During Preparation
Poultry should always be heated until well done
Doneness may be determined by internal temperature, color changes, and/or touch and time/weight tables.
Poultry is sufficiently cooked when the internal temperature reaches 180° to 185°F (82° to 85°C).
A thermometer placed in the center of any stuffing must reach a minimum temperature of 165°F (74°C).Preparation of Poultry
Frozen whole poultry can be stored from six to twelve months at 0°F (18°C).
Breaded or fried poultry should never be thawed and refrozen.
Defrosting is recommended in the refrigerator.
Once defrosted, poultry or any other meat should not be refrozen unless it has been cooked.Storage of Poultry
Finfish:Fish that have fins and internal skeletons.
Shellfish, which includes the invertebrate crustaceansand mollusks.
Crustacean:An invertebrate animal with a segmented body covered by an exoskeleton consisting of a hard upper shell and a soft under shell.
Mollusk:An invertebrate animal with a soft unsegmented body usually enclosed in a shell.Classification of Fish and Shellfish
Structure of Finfish
Signs of Decay in Fresh Finfish
How Much Fish to Buy
Fish should be stored in the coldest portion of the refrigerator.
It should also be tightly wrapped to prevent odors from coming in contact with other foods.
Fresh shellfish should be eaten the day they are bought.
Crabs, usually sold precooked, should be stored in the coldest part of the refrigerator and used within a day or two.Storage of Fish and Shellfish