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HEAT INJURY PREVENTION PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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HEAT INJURY PREVENTION. CW4 Jim Chanley. REFERENCES. AR 40-5 FM 21-20-1 FM 1-301 FM 21-76. WHY IS HEAT PREVENTION IMPORTANT. Combat capability is contingent upon the ability to adapt to the environment The body can survive only at a narrow range of core temperatures.

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HEAT INJURY PREVENTION

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Heat injury prevention l.jpg

HEAT INJURY PREVENTION

CW4 Jim Chanley


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REFERENCES

AR 40-5

FM 21-20-1

FM 1-301

FM 21-76


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WHY IS HEAT PREVENTION IMPORTANT

  • Combat capability is contingent upon the ability to adapt to the environment

  • The body can survive only at a narrow range of core temperatures


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EFFECTS OF HEAT ON THE BODY

MENTALEFFICIENCY

WORK DONE

ERRORS

98.6 100.2 100.3 101

BODY TEMPERATURE F


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HOW THE BODY RELEASES HEAT

  • Radiation: transfer of heat from a hotter object to a cooler object though space by radiant energy

  • Conduction: transfer of heat from molecule to molecule of adjacent objects


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HEAT RELEASE CONTINUED

  • Convection: transfer of heat in liquids or gases in which molecules are free to move

  • Evaporation: heat lose involves the changing of a substance from its liquid state to its gaseous form


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INFLUENCING FACTORS

  • Air temperature

  • Temperature of surrounding objects

  • Sun’s radiant heat

  • Relative humidity

  • Air movement

  • Amount and type of clothing worn

  • Heat produced by the body


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TYPES OF HEAT INJURIES

  • Heat cramps

  • Heat exhaustion

  • Heat stroke


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HEAT CRAMPS

  • Excessive salt lose

  • Painful cramps of muscles usually in arms, legs and stomach area

  • Heat exhaustion may be present

  • Body temperature may be normal

  • Avoided by acclamation, proper nutrition and hydration


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HEAT EXHAUSTION

  • Excessive salt and water loss

  • Skin is cool and moist; pulse is rapid and blood pressure may be low

  • Other symptoms are profuse sweating, headaches, tingling in hands and feet, paleness, difficulty breathing, irregular heart beat, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting

  • Oral temperature may be lower than normal if the person is hyperventilating


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HEAT EXHAUSTION CONT.

  • Trembling, weakness, lack of coordination and a slight clouding of senses to momentary loss of consciousness complete the classic picture

  • Avoided by proper work/rest cycles and good hydration


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!!!!CAUTION!!!!

Those that suffered from heat exhaustion are ‘fragile’ and can have another episode easily


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HEAT STROKE

  • A medical emergency and death rate is high

  • The body’s heat regulatory mechanism stops functioning and the main avenue of heat loss is blocked

  • Early signs are headache, dizziness, delirium, weakness, nausea, vomiting and excessive warmth

  • Skin is usually hot, red and dry

  • Body temperature may be as high as 106 F


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HEAT STROKE CONT.

  • The casualty may go through heat cramps or heat exhaustion; a sudden collapse and loss of consciousness followed by coma and convulsions may occur

  • Sweating may or may not be present

  • Avoided by proper work/rest cycles abd full hydration


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!!!!CAUTION!!!!

Heat stroke casualties are more susceptible to a second attack


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FIRST AID FOR HEAT CRAMPS AND EXHAUSTION

  • Move soldier to a shady area and loosen clothing if possible

  • Slowly give large amounts of cool water

  • Pour water on soldier and fan

  • Elevate legs for exhaustion

  • Watch soldier, if possible release from strenuous activity

  • Get medical help if symptoms continue


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FIRST AID FOR HEAT STROKE

  • Lower casualty’s body temperature ASAP

  • Elevate soldier’s legs

  • Have soldier drink water if possible

  • GET MEDICAL HELP


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PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Acclimatization; 7-14 days, 2 hours a day


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PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Overweight and fatigue


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PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Heavy meals and hot food


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PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Alcohol and drugs

  • Drugs that inhibit sweating are atropine, antihistomines, some tranquilizers, cold medicine and some antidiarrheal medicines


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PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Fevers

  • Many immunizations produce fevers


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PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Tight clothing


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PREVENTING HEAT INJURIES

  • Replace water loss; by sweating a person can lose more than 1 quart per hour

  • Drink small amounts of water frequently regardless of thirst

  • Use heat injury prevention chart as a guide

  • Provide adequate water at all times


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PREVENTING HEAT INJURIES

  • Maintain acclimatization

    • Begin acclimatization with first exposure

    • Continue with two 50 minutes periods daily

    • Limit intensity and time of exposure for those not acclimatized

    • Acclimatization can be lost if remove from the hot enviroment for 1 month


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PREVENTING HEAT INJURIES

Maintain good physical condition


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PREVENTING HEAT INJURIES

  • Establish a good work/rest schedule; must be talored to fit climate, physical condition of personnel and military situation

    • Work in cooler hours

    • Avoid working in direct sunlight

    • Slowly increase exposure to those becoming acclimatized

    • Use heat injury prevention chart as a guide


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!!!CAUTION!!!

Overexertion can cause heat injuries at temperatures lower than 75 degrees F on the WBGT index


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PREVENTING HEAT INJURIES

  • Use proper clothing to protect yourself

    • Loose clothing

    • Wear least amount when possible

    • Obtain the WBGT

    • Add 10 degrees to WBGT when wearing body armor or MOPP


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REVIEW

  • Types of heat injuries

  • Factors that influence

  • Prevention


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QUESTIONS?


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