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HEAT INJURY PREVENTION. CW4 Jim Chanley. REFERENCES. AR 40-5 FM 21-20-1 FM 1-301 FM 21-76. WHY IS HEAT PREVENTION IMPORTANT. Combat capability is contingent upon the ability to adapt to the environment The body can survive only at a narrow range of core temperatures.

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heat injury prevention

HEAT INJURY PREVENTION

CW4 Jim Chanley

references
REFERENCES

AR 40-5

FM 21-20-1

FM 1-301

FM 21-76

why is heat prevention important
WHY IS HEAT PREVENTION IMPORTANT
  • Combat capability is contingent upon the ability to adapt to the environment
  • The body can survive only at a narrow range of core temperatures
effects of heat on the body
EFFECTS OF HEAT ON THE BODY

MENTALEFFICIENCY

WORK DONE

ERRORS

98.6 100.2 100.3 101

BODY TEMPERATURE F

how the body releases heat
HOW THE BODY RELEASES HEAT
  • Radiation: transfer of heat from a hotter object to a cooler object though space by radiant energy
  • Conduction: transfer of heat from molecule to molecule of adjacent objects
heat release continued
HEAT RELEASE CONTINUED
  • Convection: transfer of heat in liquids or gases in which molecules are free to move
  • Evaporation: heat lose involves the changing of a substance from its liquid state to its gaseous form
influencing factors
INFLUENCING FACTORS
  • Air temperature
  • Temperature of surrounding objects
  • Sun’s radiant heat
  • Relative humidity
  • Air movement
  • Amount and type of clothing worn
  • Heat produced by the body
types of heat injuries
TYPES OF HEAT INJURIES
  • Heat cramps
  • Heat exhaustion
  • Heat stroke
heat cramps
HEAT CRAMPS
  • Excessive salt lose
  • Painful cramps of muscles usually in arms, legs and stomach area
  • Heat exhaustion may be present
  • Body temperature may be normal
  • Avoided by acclamation, proper nutrition and hydration
heat exhaustion
HEAT EXHAUSTION
  • Excessive salt and water loss
  • Skin is cool and moist; pulse is rapid and blood pressure may be low
  • Other symptoms are profuse sweating, headaches, tingling in hands and feet, paleness, difficulty breathing, irregular heart beat, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting
  • Oral temperature may be lower than normal if the person is hyperventilating
heat exhaustion cont
HEAT EXHAUSTION CONT.
  • Trembling, weakness, lack of coordination and a slight clouding of senses to momentary loss of consciousness complete the classic picture
  • Avoided by proper work/rest cycles and good hydration
caution

!!!!CAUTION!!!!

Those that suffered from heat exhaustion are ‘fragile’ and can have another episode easily

heat stroke
HEAT STROKE
  • A medical emergency and death rate is high
  • The body’s heat regulatory mechanism stops functioning and the main avenue of heat loss is blocked
  • Early signs are headache, dizziness, delirium, weakness, nausea, vomiting and excessive warmth
  • Skin is usually hot, red and dry
  • Body temperature may be as high as 106 F
heat stroke cont
HEAT STROKE CONT.
  • The casualty may go through heat cramps or heat exhaustion; a sudden collapse and loss of consciousness followed by coma and convulsions may occur
  • Sweating may or may not be present
  • Avoided by proper work/rest cycles abd full hydration
caution15

!!!!CAUTION!!!!

Heat stroke casualties are more susceptible to a second attack

first aid for heat cramps and exhaustion
FIRST AID FOR HEAT CRAMPS AND EXHAUSTION
  • Move soldier to a shady area and loosen clothing if possible
  • Slowly give large amounts of cool water
  • Pour water on soldier and fan
  • Elevate legs for exhaustion
  • Watch soldier, if possible release from strenuous activity
  • Get medical help if symptoms continue
first aid for heat stroke
FIRST AID FOR HEAT STROKE
  • Lower casualty’s body temperature ASAP
  • Elevate soldier’s legs
  • Have soldier drink water if possible
  • GET MEDICAL HELP
predisposing factors
PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Acclimatization; 7-14 days, 2 hours a day

predisposing factors19
PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Overweight and fatigue

predisposing factors20
PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Heavy meals and hot food

predisposing factors21
PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Alcohol and drugs

  • Drugs that inhibit sweating are atropine, antihistomines, some tranquilizers, cold medicine and some antidiarrheal medicines
predisposing factors22
PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Fevers

  • Many immunizations produce fevers
predisposing factors23
PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Tight clothing

preventing heat injuries
PREVENTING HEAT INJURIES
  • Replace water loss; by sweating a person can lose more than 1 quart per hour
  • Drink small amounts of water frequently regardless of thirst
  • Use heat injury prevention chart as a guide
  • Provide adequate water at all times
preventing heat injuries25
PREVENTING HEAT INJURIES
  • Maintain acclimatization
    • Begin acclimatization with first exposure
    • Continue with two 50 minutes periods daily
    • Limit intensity and time of exposure for those not acclimatized
    • Acclimatization can be lost if remove from the hot enviroment for 1 month
preventing heat injuries26
PREVENTING HEAT INJURIES

Maintain good physical condition

preventing heat injuries27
PREVENTING HEAT INJURIES
  • Establish a good work/rest schedule; must be talored to fit climate, physical condition of personnel and military situation
    • Work in cooler hours
    • Avoid working in direct sunlight
    • Slowly increase exposure to those becoming acclimatized
    • Use heat injury prevention chart as a guide
caution28

!!!CAUTION!!!

Overexertion can cause heat injuries at temperatures lower than 75 degrees F on the WBGT index

preventing heat injuries29
PREVENTING HEAT INJURIES
  • Use proper clothing to protect yourself
    • Loose clothing
    • Wear least amount when possible
    • Obtain the WBGT
    • Add 10 degrees to WBGT when wearing body armor or MOPP
review
REVIEW
  • Types of heat injuries
  • Factors that influence
  • Prevention
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