Injury Prevention. Mazen S. Zenati , M.D., MPH, Ph.D. University of Pittsburgh Department of Surgery and Epidemiology. Driver Fatality Rates by Age and Gender, 1996. Trauma Death by Age & Gender. National Trauma Data Bank, Report 2002. Trauma Death. Prevention. Prevention. Prevention.
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Mazen S. Zenati, M.D., MPH, Ph.D.
University of Pittsburgh
Department of Surgery and Epidemiology
National Trauma Data Bank,
In Trauma The Only Treatment of
is Through Prevention
Injury is the unintentional or intentional damage to the body resulting from acute exposure to thermal, mechanical, electrical, or chemical energy or from the absence of such essentials as heat or oxygen.
Emergency department visits
Episodes of injuries reported
Injuries are one of the most significant public health problems not only in magnitude but also compared with other problems. Injuries kill more American children, adolescents, and young adults than any other cause.
Source: Fingerhut LA, et al. Advance Data Number 303, October 7 1998, US National Center for Health Statistics, International Comparative Analysis of Injury Mortality. Findings From the ICE on Injury Statistics.NB: The number and particular years that go to make up each countries' estimate differ.
Each year > 5 million people die of injuries.
2/3 are males and the majority are young adults aged 15-44
MV crashes are the largest cause of injury death.
Injuries and the Factors Underlying Injuries can be Examined
from an Epidemiological
Haddon Phase-Factor Matrix
Haddon Phase-Factor Matrix
Motor vehicle crash
1.Preventing creation of the agent:stop production of the agent before it can present a hazard
2.Reducing the amount of the agent: identifying a hazard and reducing its presence in an environment.
3.Preventing release of the agent; reduce exposure by deterring it from entering the environment
4.Modifying the rate or spatial distribution of the agent;
altering the mechanism by which energy is transferred to the host
5.Separating the host and agent,in time and space: eliminating contact between energy source and host
6.Separating the agent from asusceptible host by interposition of a material barrier
7.Modifying relevant qualities of the agent
Make crib slat spacing too narrow to strangle a child
8.Strengthening the susceptible host
9.Countering the injury already caused by the agent
10.Stabilizing, repairing and rehabilitating the injured host
65% of persons who die from falls are > 65
Account for 87% of all fractures in older adults
1 of 5 falls resulted in direct impact on the hip
Hip fracture is the most frequent consequence
Osteoporosis facilitates fractures
The risk of Osteoporosis for 50-years WFW is 40%
History of previous falls
balance and gait impairment
a low body-mass index
use of diuretics
use of psychotropic drugs
hazards in the home
National Trauma Data Bank
Hospital length of stay grouped by mechanism of injury. Blue bars represent blunt mechanisms of injury. Green bars represent violent mechanisms of injury. Red bar represents burns.
Examples of State and Local Laws
Trauma is no accident but is our training