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Jacksonian America. Chapter 6 Section 1 Objective: 2.3 – Distinguish between the economic and social issues that led to sectionalism & nationalism . Andrew Jackson. 1829 - 1837. Election of 1828. Andrew Jackson (Democrat) vs. John Q. Adams (rerun of 1824 election).

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Jacksonian america

Jacksonian America

Chapter 6 Section 1

Objective: 2.3 – Distinguish between the economic and social issues that led to sectionalism & nationalism

Andrew jackson
Andrew Jackson

1829 - 1837

Election of 1828
Election of 1828

Andrew Jackson (Democrat) vs. John Q. Adams (rerun of 1824 election).

Both candidates engaged in “mudslinging”

Jackson won the presidency-carried all southern & western states.

1st President from the “new west”- Tenn.

Jacksonian america1
Jacksonian America

  • Portrayed himself as the common man

  • Little education, orphaned at age 14, 5 duels-killed 1 man

  • Common man more powerful in politics

    • Early 1800’s -States eliminated of property requirements to vote= all white men allowed to vote (increased “suffrage”)

    • 1824 election=355,000 voted; 1828= 1.1 million voted

  • Spoils System – to give government jobs to supporters regardless of qualifications

    • Jackson fired everyone and gave jobs to political allies.

  • Replaced the Caucus system of choosing presidential candidates with the National Nominating Conventions

What does suffrage mean
What does suffrage mean?

  • Right to vote

  • A group that suffers

  • A person that suffers

  • An unrighteousness




Who are these guys
Who are these guys?

Andrew Jackson


John Calhoun


Henry Clay

(Kentucky Congressman)

The nullification crisis
*The Nullification Crisis

  • Economy was weakening –

    • Cotton prices were dropping to all time lows

    • Tariffs meant high prices on goods (mostly for Southerners & westerners)

  • Tariff of Abominations (1828)-passed by Congress

    • South Carolina – John Calhoun (VP) calls for nullification of the law

    • Jackson believed nullification would destroy the U.S.

    • South Carolina threatened secession if the tariff wasn’t repealed

The debate over nullification
The Debate Over Nullification

  • Could a state defy a federal law ???

  • The South Carolina Exposition and Protest (Vice-President John C. Calhoun)- essay declared that states had a right to declare a federal law “null” (not valid)= nullification.

  • The Webster v. Hayne Senate Debates (1830)

    Robert Hayne (SC) – the Union is no more than a voluntary association of states (state’s rights).

    Daniel Webster (Mass.)- believed in preservation of the Union would best preserve LIBERTY.

    “Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable!”

Jackson defends the union
Jackson Defends the UNION!

  • 1832- Congress passed another tariff law (which actually cut tariff rates a little).

  • South Carolina adopted ordinance of nullification (Tariffs of 1828 & 1832 unconstitutional)

  • 1833- The Force Bill: Congress authorized the president to use force.

Clay saves the day
Clay Saves the Day!!

  • Tensions rose

  • Senator Henry Clay (Kentucky) –pushed a bill through Congress to gradually lower the nation’s tariffs until 1842.

  • South Carolina cancelled their Nullification ordinance.

  • Conflict AVOIDED!!

Jackson s policy towards native americans
Jackson’s Policy towards Native Americans

  • Jackson had fought Indians (Creek & Seminoles); inaugural speech proclaimed removal of Indians to Great Plains.

  • Indian Removal Act (1830)-pushed by Jackson

    • Remove all Native Americans & send to the great plains

  • Worcester v Georgia (1832)

    • Cherokee of Georgia & NC sued the US

    • Chief Justice John Marshall – ruled in favor of Indian property rights

    • Jackson refused to enforce it-”Marshall has made his decision, let him enforce it”.

  • 1838- Trail of Tears – US military forced removal of the Cherokee to Oklahoma (4,000 died); by 1838- most eastern Indian tribes had been moved to the Great Plains-reservations.

The election of 1832
The Election of 1832

  • The Bank of the United States- became a major issue!

  • The Whigs – a new party!!

    • Northern

  • Jackson won in a landslide

  • 1st presidential candidate to be nominated by his PARTY through nominating convention.

Jackson s war against the bank of the us
Jackson’s “War” against the BANK OF THE US

  • Before the election of 1832-Jackson’s opponents in Congress passed a bill extending the life of the US Bank for ANOTHER 20 years- Jackson made it a major issue.

  • Jackson disliked the National Bank & set out to destroy it= considered it a monopoly WHICH benefitted the wealthy; also unconstitutional (in spite of McCulloch v. Maryland)

  • Jackson’s “Pet Banks”

    • Jackson took federal government money out of National Bank

    • Placed the money in small state owned banks =his" pet banks”

    • Eventually killing the 2nd Bank of the United States= financial woes later

Election 1836
Election 1836

Election of 1836

Martin Van Buren

  • Whigs nominated 3 candidates

  • Democrat – MartinVan Buren -winner

  • Panic of 1837 – recession that dominated his presidency

  • Trail of Tears – he carried out forced removal of Indians west of the Mississippi.

1837 - 1841

Election of 1840
Election of 1840

  • Election of 1840

  • Whigs – William Henry Harrison & John Tyler

    • Tippecanoe & Tyler too!

  • William Henry Harrison won!

  • Dies 32 days later-pneumonia

  • John Tyler became president-opposed most Whig policies

Pres john tyler foreign policy achievements
Pres. John Tyler Foreign Policy Achievements

  • Webster AshburtonTreaty- 1842

    • The US & Britain agree to Set border between Canada & Maine.

A changing culture
A Changing Culture

  • 1815-1860: Over 5 million immigrants arrived in the US

    Irish Immigration

  • Almost 2 million (largest group)

  • Fleeing a potato famine in Ireland (1845)

  • Arrived with little or no money or skills

  • Settled in industrial cities (Northeast)

German Immigration

  • Fleeing violence & oppression in Germany