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Jacksonian America. Chapter 6 Section 1 Objective: 2.3 – Distinguish between the economic and social issues that led to sectionalism & nationalism . Andrew Jackson. 1829 - 1837. Election of 1828. Andrew Jackson (Democrat) vs. John Q. Adams (rerun of 1824 election).

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jacksonian america

Jacksonian America

Chapter 6 Section 1

Objective: 2.3 – Distinguish between the economic and social issues that led to sectionalism & nationalism

andrew jackson
Andrew Jackson

1829 - 1837

election of 1828
Election of 1828

Andrew Jackson (Democrat) vs. John Q. Adams (rerun of 1824 election).

Both candidates engaged in “mudslinging”

Jackson won the presidency-carried all southern & western states.

1st President from the “new west”- Tenn.

jacksonian america1
Jacksonian America
  • Portrayed himself as the common man
  • Little education, orphaned at age 14, 5 duels-killed 1 man
  • Common man more powerful in politics
    • Early 1800’s -States eliminated of property requirements to vote= all white men allowed to vote (increased “suffrage”)
    • 1824 election=355,000 voted; 1828= 1.1 million voted
  • Spoils System – to give government jobs to supporters regardless of qualifications
    • Jackson fired everyone and gave jobs to political allies.
  • Replaced the Caucus system of choosing presidential candidates with the National Nominating Conventions
what does suffrage mean
What does suffrage mean?
  • Right to vote
  • A group that suffers
  • A person that suffers
  • An unrighteousness

25

of

28

who are these guys
Who are these guys?

Andrew Jackson

(President)

John Calhoun

(Vice-President)

Henry Clay

(Kentucky Congressman)

the nullification crisis
*The Nullification Crisis
  • Economy was weakening –
    • Cotton prices were dropping to all time lows
    • Tariffs meant high prices on goods (mostly for Southerners & westerners)
  • Tariff of Abominations (1828)-passed by Congress
    • South Carolina – John Calhoun (VP) calls for nullification of the law
    • Jackson believed nullification would destroy the U.S.
    • South Carolina threatened secession if the tariff wasn’t repealed
the debate over nullification
The Debate Over Nullification
  • Could a state defy a federal law ???
  • The South Carolina Exposition and Protest (Vice-President John C. Calhoun)- essay declared that states had a right to declare a federal law “null” (not valid)= nullification.
  • The Webster v. Hayne Senate Debates (1830)

Robert Hayne (SC) – the Union is no more than a voluntary association of states (state’s rights).

Daniel Webster (Mass.)- believed in preservation of the Union would best preserve LIBERTY.

“Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable!”

jackson defends the union
Jackson Defends the UNION!
  • 1832- Congress passed another tariff law (which actually cut tariff rates a little).
  • South Carolina adopted ordinance of nullification (Tariffs of 1828 & 1832 unconstitutional)
  • 1833- The Force Bill: Congress authorized the president to use force.
clay saves the day
Clay Saves the Day!!
  • Tensions rose
  • Senator Henry Clay (Kentucky) –pushed a bill through Congress to gradually lower the nation’s tariffs until 1842.
  • South Carolina cancelled their Nullification ordinance.
  • Conflict AVOIDED!!
jackson s policy towards native americans
Jackson’s Policy towards Native Americans
  • Jackson had fought Indians (Creek & Seminoles); inaugural speech proclaimed removal of Indians to Great Plains.
  • Indian Removal Act (1830)-pushed by Jackson
    • Remove all Native Americans & send to the great plains
  • Worcester v Georgia (1832)
    • Cherokee of Georgia & NC sued the US
    • Chief Justice John Marshall – ruled in favor of Indian property rights
    • Jackson refused to enforce it-”Marshall has made his decision, let him enforce it”.
  • 1838- Trail of Tears – US military forced removal of the Cherokee to Oklahoma (4,000 died); by 1838- most eastern Indian tribes had been moved to the Great Plains-reservations.
the election of 1832
The Election of 1832
  • The Bank of the United States- became a major issue!
  • The Whigs – a new party!!
    • Northern
  • Jackson won in a landslide
  • 1st presidential candidate to be nominated by his PARTY through nominating convention.
jackson s war against the bank of the us
Jackson’s “War” against the BANK OF THE US
  • Before the election of 1832-Jackson’s opponents in Congress passed a bill extending the life of the US Bank for ANOTHER 20 years- Jackson made it a major issue.
  • Jackson disliked the National Bank & set out to destroy it= considered it a monopoly WHICH benefitted the wealthy; also unconstitutional (in spite of McCulloch v. Maryland)
  • Jackson’s “Pet Banks”
    • Jackson took federal government money out of National Bank
    • Placed the money in small state owned banks =his" pet banks”
    • Eventually killing the 2nd Bank of the United States= financial woes later
election 1836
Election 1836

Election of 1836

Martin Van Buren

  • Whigs nominated 3 candidates
  • Democrat – MartinVan Buren -winner
  • Panic of 1837 – recession that dominated his presidency
  • Trail of Tears – he carried out forced removal of Indians west of the Mississippi.

1837 - 1841

election of 1840
Election of 1840
  • Election of 1840
  • Whigs – William Henry Harrison & John Tyler
    • Tippecanoe & Tyler too!
  • William Henry Harrison won!
  • Dies 32 days later-pneumonia
  • John Tyler became president-opposed most Whig policies
pres john tyler foreign policy achievements
Pres. John Tyler Foreign Policy Achievements
  • Webster AshburtonTreaty- 1842
    • The US & Britain agree to Set border between Canada & Maine.
a changing culture
A Changing Culture
  • 1815-1860: Over 5 million immigrants arrived in the US

Irish Immigration

  • Almost 2 million (largest group)
  • Fleeing a potato famine in Ireland (1845)
  • Arrived with little or no money or skills
  • Settled in industrial cities (Northeast)
slide21
German Immigration
  • Fleeing violence & oppression in Germany
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