Opening Doors: The rising proportion of Women and Minority Scientists and Engineers in the United St...
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Opening Doors: The rising proportion of Women and Minority Scientists and Engineers in the United States. Richard Freeman Tanwin Chang Hanley Chiang. January 14, 2005 Supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Three Messages.

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January 14 2005 supported by the alfred p sloan foundation

Opening Doors: The rising proportion of Women and Minority Scientists and Engineers in the United States

Richard Freeman

Tanwin Chang

Hanley Chiang

January 14, 2005

Supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation


Three messages

Three Messages

1. Substantial increase in proportions of PhDs for women and underrepresented minorities  something worked

2. “Attributable” largely to increase in BS degrees

3. Some evidence of policy contribution to improved diversity

SUPPLY INCREASES BUT ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH CAREER PROBLEMS


1 1 percentage of s e bachelor s degrees earned by females 1976 2001

1.1 Percentage of S&E Bachelor’s Degrees Earned by Females, 1976-2001

Source: Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office for Civil Rights; National Center for Education Statistics.

Note: Chart refers to bachelor’s degrees earned by U.S. citizens / permanent residents at U.S. institutions.


1 2 percentage of s e doctorates earned by females 1976 2001

1.2 Percentage of S&E Doctorates Earned by Females, 1976-2001

Source: Authors’ tabulations from the Survey of Earned Doctorates.

Note: Chart refers to doctorates earned by U.S. citizens / permanent residents at U.S. institutions.


1 3 percentage of s e bachelor s degrees earned by underrepresented minorities 1976 2001

1.3 Percentage of S&E Bachelor’s Degrees Earned by Underrepresented Minorities, 1976-2001

Source: Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office for Civil Rights; National Center for Education Statistics.

Note: Chart refers to bachelor’s degrees earned by U.S. citizens / permanent residents at U.S. institutions.


1 4 percentage of s e doctorates earned by underrepresented minorities 1976 2001

1.4 Percentage of S&E Doctorates Earned by Underrepresented Minorities, 1976-2001

Source: Authors’ tabulations from the Survey of Earned Doctorates.

Note: Chart refers to doctorates earned by U.S. citizens / permanent residents at U.S. institutions.


1 6 percentage of s e doctorates earned by asian american u s citizens 1976 2001

1.6 Percentage of S&E Doctorates Earned by Asian-American U.S. Citizens, 1976-2001

Source: Authors’ tabulations from the Survey of Earned Doctorates.

Note: Chart refers to doctorates earned by U.S. citizens / permanent residents at U.S. institutions.


2 1 ratio of doctorates to 5 year lagged bachelor s degrees in s e by demographic group

2.1 Ratio of Doctorates to 5-Year Lagged Bachelor’s Degrees in S&E: By Demographic Group

Source: Authors’ tabulations from data obtained from the Survey of Earned Doctorates and the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.


2 2 ratio of doctorates to 5 year lagged bachelor s degrees by field

2.2 Ratio of Doctorates to 5-Year Lagged Bachelor’s Degrees: By Field

Source: Authors’ tabulations from data obtained from the Survey of Earned Doctorates and the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.


January 14 2005 supported by the alfred p sloan foundation

2.3 Decomposition of 1981-2000 Change in F/M and Minority/ Majority Ratios among PhD Recipients (ln units)

Change in

(Min/Non-Min PhDs)

= 0.82, explained by:

Change in

Female/Male PhDs

= 0.74, explained by:

Fall in PhD/BA

(Non-Min)

Fall in PhD/BA

(Males)

Rise in

PhDs / BA

(Females)

Rise

in PhD/ BA

(Minorities)

7%

14%

16%

30%

Rise in BA Females /

BA Males.

70%

Rise in BA Min /

BA Non-Min

63%

BA data lagged by 5 years compared to PhD data

Min: Underrepresented Minority


3 1 percentage of nsf fellowships awarded to women 1952 2004

3.1 Percentage of NSF Fellowships Awarded to Women, 1952-2004


3 2 percentage of nsf fellowships awarded to minorities excluding mgf awards 1976 2004

3.2 Percentage of NSF Fellowships Awarded to MinoritiesExcluding MGF Awards, 1976-2004


3 3 percentage of nsf fellowships awarded to minorities including mgf awards 1976 2004

3.3 Percentage of NSF Fellowships Awarded to MinoritiesIncluding MGF Awards, 1976-2004


3 4 mean gre quantitative scores for individuals intending graduate study in the physical sciences

3.4 Mean GRE Quantitative Scores for Individuals Intending Graduate Study in the Physical Sciences

Source: ETS, Sex, Race, Ethnicity, and Performance on the GRE General Test, various years.

Note: Racial/ethnic categories only consist of U.S. citizens.


January 14 2005 supported by the alfred p sloan foundation

3.5 Mean GRE Quantitative Scores of GRFP and MGF Applicants, 1976-2004: By Selected Demographic Groups


January 14 2005 supported by the alfred p sloan foundation

3.6 Estimated Determinants of Getting GRF Award, 1976-2004


3 7 wide variation in female minority among universities in same discipline 1996 2000

3.7 Wide Variation in % Female/MinorityAmong Universities in Same Discipline, 1996-2000

Example for women: Economics

5 lowest (171 PhDs) 15%

5 highest (155 PhDs) 45%

Example for minorities: Chemistry

5 lowest (439 PhDs) 2%

5 highest (303 PhDs)19%


January 14 2005 supported by the alfred p sloan foundation

Simulation:

Random Distribution of minorities.

1000 Runs

Biology Depts.

6.8% Minority

Number of Simulation Runs

Value calculated from data: 0.073

Mean deviation from Minority Fraction

Mean Deviation of Percent Minority from “Expected

Percent Minority


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Women and minorities have made strong gains in representation in the S&E workforce

  • Some evidence for policies and programs, but

  • Most of the gains can be explained by increases in Bachelors’ – potentially normal supply response

  • Economists’ view: If they are in the workforce, want to use them optimally  make career and life compatible: Childbearing issues for women

  • Mentoring for minorities and women

  • Role in team based science


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