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Project Scheduling. By: Ernawati Mustafa Kamal School of Housing, Building & Planning Universiti Sains Malaysia. Project Scheduling. A project is a collection of tasks that must be completed within certain time frame, with specific cost & quality. Project Scheduling Objectives.

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Project Scheduling

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Project scheduling

Project Scheduling

By: Ernawati Mustafa Kamal

School of Housing, Building & Planning

Universiti Sains Malaysia

Project scheduling1

Project Scheduling

  • A project is a collection of tasks that must be completed within certain time frame, with specific cost & quality.

Project scheduling objectives

Project Scheduling Objectives

  • Estimating time of project by determining the earliest start and finish of each activity.

    • Finding the minimum cost schedule needed to complete the project by a certain date.

    • Investigating the results of possible delays in activity’s completion time.

Project scheduling objectives1

Project Scheduling Objectives

  • Progress control.

  • Smoothing out resource allocation over the duration of the project.

Project scheduling2

Project Scheduling

  • Tasks are called “activities.”

    - Estimated completion time (and sometimes costs) are associated with each activity.

    - Activity completion time is related to the amount of resources committed to it.

    - The degree of activity details depends on the application and how specific is the data.

Identifying the activities of a project

Identifying the Activities of a Project

  • To determine optimal schedules we need to

    • Identify all the project’s activities.

    • Determine the precedence relations among activities.

Identifying activities

Identifying Activities

  • Example:

    - Company A is a contractor & they need to construct a house.

Identifying activities1

Identifying Activities

  • Major task they need to perform & complete:

    - Sub-structure

    - Superstructure

    - Internal Finishes

    - Services and finishing

    - External Works

Identifying activities2

Identifying Activities

  • Company A needs to develop a precedence relations chart.

  • The chart gives a concise set of tasks and their immediate predecessors.

Identifying activities3

Identifying Activities



Sub-StructureBPile caps and ground beams


DUpper Floors


FStairs and Ramps

SuperstructureGExternal Walls

HWindows and External Doors

IInternal Walls and Partitions

JInternal Doors

Internal FinishesKWall finishes

LFloor Finishes

M Ceiling Finishes

Identifying activities4

Identifying Activities


NSanitary installation

Services & FinishingOWater installation

PElectrical installation

QRoad, Paths, Pavings & Surfacing

External WorksRLandscaping and Irrigation Systems


TExternal drainage

UExternal services

From the activity description chart, we can determine immediate predecessors for each activity.

Scheduling tools techniques

Scheduling Tools & Techniques

  • Mathematical Analysis

    - calculating theoretical early and late start and finish dates for all projects activities without regard for any resource limitations.

    - The resulting dates are not schedule, but it indicate the time period within which activity should be schedule.

Mathematical analysis

Mathematical Analysis

  • Critical Path Method (CPM)

  • Graphical Evaluation and Review Techniques (GERT)

  • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

Scheduling tools techniques1

Scheduling Tools & Techniques

  • Bar Charts

    - Milestone charts

    - Gantt charts

  • Horizontal time scale is used, often divided into weeks.

  • Various operations comprising the project are listed vertically down the left-hand side.

Bar charts

Bar Charts

  • The timing and duration of each operation indicated by a horizontal bar spanning the relevant period of weeks and shown on the same line as the operation it refers to.

Example of bar charts

Example of Bar Charts

Example of bar charts1

Example of Bar Charts

Example of bar charts2

Example of Bar Charts

Example of bar charts3

Example of Bar Charts

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