Project scheduling 1
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Project Scheduling (1). Tran Van Hoai Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering HCMC University of Technology. What is project management?.

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Project Scheduling (1)

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Project scheduling 1

Project Scheduling (1)

Tran Van HoaiFaculty of Computer Science & Engineering

HCMC University of Technology

Tran Van Hoai


What is project management

What is project management?

Project management (PM) is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing and managingresources to bring about the successful completion of specific engineering project goals and objectives

  • Project is not business as usual (operations)

    • Operations means repetitive, permanent, semi-permanent

Tran Van Hoai


Primary challenges of pm

Primary challenges of PM

  • To achieve all of the predefined project goals

  • To honor the preconceived project constraints

    • Typical constraints are scope, time, and budget

Tran Van Hoai


Brief history 1

Brief history (1)

  • 1900: PM has been practiced in civil engineering projects

  • 1910: Gantt chart, proposed by Henry Gantt

  • 1916: 5 management functions, proposed by Henri Fayol

  • <1950s: PM performed by Gantt charts, and informal techniques and tools

Tran Van Hoai


Brief history 2

Brief history (2)

  • 1950: mathematical project scheduling models developed

    • Critical Path Method (CPM)

    • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

  • Technology developed

    • Certification

    • Standard

    • Organizations

Tran Van Hoai


Approaches 1

Approaches (1)

  • Traditional approach

Waterfall model in SoftwareDevelopment

Tran Van Hoai


Approaches 2

Approaches (2)

  • Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM)

    • More emphasis on resources

    • Based on Theory of Constraints (Goldratt [1984])

      • Guarantee that resources are ready when critical chain tasks must start

  • Extreme Project Management (XPM)

    • PERT-based models do not work well for multi-project company environment

    • to manage very complex and very uncertain projects

      • “lightweight” models, human interaction management

Tran Van Hoai


Approaches 3

Approaches (3)

  • Event chain methodology

    • Complement CPM and CCPM methodologies

    • identify and manage events and event chains to cope with uncertainty

  • PRINCE2

    • Structured approach

    • Automatic control

Tran Van Hoai


Approaches 4

Approaches (4)

  • Process-based management

    • Maturity models: CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration)

Tran Van Hoai


Processes stages

Processes (stages)

  • Initiation

  • Planning or development

  • Production or execution

  • Monitoring and controlling

  • Closing

In R&D projects (much explorative elements),

these stages may be supplemented with decision points

Tran Van Hoai


Initiation 1

Initiation (1)

  • To determine the nature and scope of the project

    • Must be performed well

Tran Van Hoai


Plan for initiation

Plan for initiation

  • Analyzing the business needs/requirements in measurable goals

  • Reviewing of the current operations

  • Financial analysis of the costs and benefits including a budget

  • Stakeholder analysis, including users, and support personnel for the project

  • Project charter including costs, tasks, deliverables, and schedule

Tran Van Hoai


Planning designing

Planning & Designing

  • To plan time, cost and resources adequately to estimate the work needed and to effectively manage risk during project execution

  • determining how to plan (e.g. by level of detail or rolling wave)

  • developing the scope statement

  • selecting the planning team

  • identifying deliverables and creating the work breakdown structure

  • identifying the activities needed to complete those deliverables and networking the activities in their logical sequence

  • estimating the resource requirements for the activities

  • estimating time and cost for activities

  • developing the schedule

  • developing the budget

  • risk planning

  • gaining formal approval to begin work

Tran Van Hoai


Scheduling

Scheduling

Define work activities

Sequence work activities

Schedule activities

Identify work activity resource

Estimate work activity duration

Tran Van Hoai


Executing

Executing

  • To complete the work defined in the project management plan to accomplish the project's requirements

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Monitoring controlling

Monitoring & Controlling

  • To observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the project

Tran Van Hoai


Closing

Closing

  • formal acceptance of the project

  • to archive of the files and to document lessons learned

Tran Van Hoai


Project scheduling definition

Project scheduling - definition

  • Project =

    • Collection of tasks (activities)

    • A task requires other tasks accomplished before it starts (precedence relations)

    • Factors affecting completion time

      • Resources

      • Detail level of the project target

Tran Van Hoai


Objectives

Objectives

  • Determining a schedule leading to earliest completion time for entire project

  • Calculate the likelihood a project completed within a certain time period

  • Finding minimum cost to finish the project by a certain date

  • Finding a schedule smoothing out resource allocation

Tran Van Hoai


Klonepalm 2000 activity description

Klonepalm 2000 activity description

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Precedence relations

Precedence relations

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Pert cpm network

PERT/CPM network

  • Network representation reflecting precedence relations

  • Network G = (V,A)

    • V: vertex set = set of activities,

      • vi = estimated completion time

    • A: arc set = set of precedence relations

      • aij if activity j is preceded by activity i

Tran Van Hoai


Klonepalm 2000 pert cpm network

Klonepalm 2000 PERT/CPM network

E

21

B

15

C

5

A

90

F

25

G

14

D

20

H

28

I

30

J

45

Tran Van Hoai


Pert cpm approach

PERT/CPM approach

  • PERT/CPM analyses are

    • To determine minimal possible completion time

    • To determine a range of start and finish times for each activity (such that project completed in minimal time)

  • Earliest times (ES,EF)

    • Computed by forward pass

  • Latest times (LS,LF)

    • Computed by backward pass

Tran Van Hoai


Earliest latest start finish times

Earliest/Latest Start/Finish Times

EF(X) = ES(X) + Weight(X)

LF(X) = LS(X) + Weight(X)

ES(X) = MAXY=immediate predecessor of X{EF(Y)}

EF(A)

LF(A)

ES(A)

LS(A)

Tran Van Hoai


Es ef sequence

ES/EF Sequence

149,170

90,105

105,110

E

21

B

15

C

5

129,149

90,115

149,177

0,90

115,129

A

90

F

25

G

14

D

20

H

28

(Minimal) Estimated completion time = 194

90,120

149,194

I

30

J

45

Tran Van Hoai


Ls lf sequence

LS/LF Sequence

149,170

90,105

105,110

E

21

B

15

C

5

173,194

95,110

110,115

90,115

129,149

149,177

0,90

115,129

A

90

F

25

G

14

D

20

H

28

166,194

90,115

115,129

0,90

129,149

90,120

149,194

I

30

J

45

119,149

149,194

Tran Van Hoai


Slack times

Slack times

  • To measure the amount of time an activity can be delayed from its ES without delaying the project’s estimated completion time

Slack(X) = LS(X) – ES(X)

Critical path are those with slack time = 0

Tran Van Hoai


Critical path

Critical path

149,170

90,105

105,110

E

21

B

15

C

5

173,194

95,110

110,115

90,115

129,149

149,177

0,90

115,129

A

90

F

25

G

14

D

20

H

28

166,194

Critical path = longest path

90,115

115,129

0,90

129,149

90,120

149,194

I

30

J

45

119,149

149,194

Tran Van Hoai


Analyses of possible delays

Analyses of possible delays

  • What if an activity on critical path is delayed ?

  • What if an activity not on critical path is delayed ?

  • What if multiple delays occur ?

Tran Van Hoai


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