Meteorological Early Warning Systems for Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Disasters
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Meteorological Early Warning Systems for Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Disasters :Case of Maa Wang River Basin. By Somchai Baimoung Director of Weather Forecast Bureau Thai Meteorological Department. PROBLEMS?.

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Meteorological Early Warning Systems for Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Disasters:Case of Maa Wang River Basin

By

Somchai Baimoung

Director of Weather Forecast Bureau

Thai Meteorological Department


Problems
PROBLEMS? Mitigation of Natural Disasters

  • To reduce the possibility of loss of life, personal injury, and damage to property and fragile environments, therefore, meteorological early warning systems in Thailand must be set up (easily and clearly to understand for local people).

  • Up to now, every related governmental institutions try to establish theirs own early warning system, but the preliminary data must come from TMD.

  • Natural hazardous always occur in local scale and highly mountainous areas


Problems1
PROBLEMS? Mitigation of Natural Disasters

  • In this moment, the perfect forecasting system would not be able to deliver precise forecast.

  • The communication between local people in risky areas with government offices has just begun, not fully successful.


How to solve
HOW TO SOLVE? Mitigation of Natural Disasters

  • Hopefully, setting up the techniques integration of numerical weather prediction products with remote sensing data and geographic information system may be a necessary appropriate tools nowadays.

  • These, must be done for developing, manipulating, and also implementing to each appropriate risky area in any regions.

  • If it is successful, then the gained knowledge and methodology from this site can be a road map for other risky areas of Thailand.


Data used methodology
DATA USED & METHODOLOGY Mitigation of Natural Disasters

Digital Form

Digital map

of

Risky Areas

in

1:25,000

1:4,000

NWP Products

SatelliteProducts

Linear Combination

Using GIS

Radar Products

Telemetering Products

In situ Products


Data used in digital form
DATA USED (in digital form) Mitigation of Natural Disasters

  • NWP Products;

    - Unified model: Thailand model (17 X 17 km.),

    Meso scale model (3 X 3 km.)

    - MM5/WRF: Thailand model (12 X 12 km.)

    Meso scale model (3 X 3 km.)

  • Satellite Products;

    - MT-SAT, NOAA 12-18, MODIS, FY, THEOS

  • Weather Radar Products

    - 26 weather radar stations data

  • Telemetering Products

    - 1,000 stations (approximate)

  • In situ Products

    - Soil data, Land use/Land cover, DEM, Topographical data

    Slope data, Aspect data, etc


New unified model products using gis
New Unified model Products using GIS Mitigation of Natural Disasters

Detailed:

- Thailand digital map scale 1:250,000 with administration

boundaries

- Interpolation using “Kriging techniques” with 17 km res.

- To be in form of grid cell with 1 km spatial resolution

- Using GIS software so-called “Arc view”

- Used for any met. parameters


Unified model in text file format
Unified model in text file format Mitigation of Natural Disasters


Each grid cell format with 17 km resolution
Each Grid cell format with 17 km resolution Mitigation of Natural Disasters


Grid cell format superimposed on Thailand digital map Mitigation of Natural Disasterswith 1 km spatial resolution for 24 hrs accumulated rainfall


2. MM5&WRF Model Output (Experimental used), Mitigation of Natural Disasterswhich can issue a variety of met. variables for weather forecast every 12 hrs with in 3 days period for instance,

MM5 (Res.12 km)

WRF (Res.12 km)


Examples of solution
EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION Mitigation of Natural Disasters

MM5/WRF PROJECTION


Examples of solution1
EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION Mitigation of Natural Disasters

MM5/WRF DATA

LONG, LAT, VAR007 68.9438, 39.4970, 261.6260 69.4474, 39.5502, 276.0664 69.9515, 39.6026, 229.2266 70.4562, 39.6542, 164.4404 70.9613, 39.7051, 105.9023 71.4670, 39.7551, 71.0498 71.9731, 39.8044, 44.2188 72.4798, 39.8529, 64.6318 72.9869, 39.9005, 197.4785 73.4945, 39.9473, 277.1563 74.0026, 39.9934, 275.0801 74.5111, 40.0386, 105.2002 75.0201, 40.0830, -126.6797 75.5296, 40.1265, 23.5176 76.0394, 40.1692, 169.5322 76.5498, 40.2111, 181.0020 77.0605, 40.2522, 113.6992 77.5717, 40.2924, 34.3262 78.0833, 40.3317, -3.3252 78.5953, 40.3702, -70.2490 79.1077, 40.4079, -154.9531 79.6205, 40.4447, -142.7148 80.1337, 40.4806, -125.9580 80.6472, 40.5157, -108.4707 81.1611, 40.5499,

-21.8350 81.6754, 40.5832, 107.7773 82.1900, 40.6156, 211.9580 82.7050, 40.6472, 282.4521 83.2203, 40.6779, 311.5059 83.7359, 40.7077, 342.0850 84.2518, 40.7366, 333.2910 84.7681, 40.7646,


New mm5 model products using gis
New MM5 model Products using GIS Mitigation of Natural Disasters

Detailed:

- Thailand digital map scale 1:250,000 with administration

boundaries

- Interpolation using “Kriging techniques” with 12 km res.

- To be in form of grid cell with 1 km spatial resolution

- Using GIS software so-called “Arc view”

- Used for any met. parameters


Mm5 model in text file format
MM5 model in text file format Mitigation of Natural Disasters


Each grid cell format with 12 km resolution
Each Grid cell format with 12 km resolution Mitigation of Natural Disasters



Grid cell format superimposed on Thailand digital map with 1 km spatial resolution for 7-days accumulated rainfall


Mtsat 1r imageries
MTSAT-1R Imageries km spatial resolution for 7-days accumulated rainfall

VIS image

IR image


Examples of solution2
EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION km spatial resolution for 7-days accumulated rainfall

SATELLITE PRODUCTS


R:G:B:2:1:1 km spatial resolution for 7-days accumulated rainfall

NDVI

NOAA Imageries


MODIS Image of Thailand Band 121 (non registration) km spatial resolution for 7-days accumulated rainfall


Radar Imageries km spatial resolution for 7-days accumulated rainfall

For these products, which will be consisted of 26 sites such as;

Chiang Mai

Don Maung, Bangkok










Examples of solution3
EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION site

WEATHER RADAR NETWORK


Examples of solution4
EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION site

WEATHER RADAR DATA

PhysicalRecordnumberRelativeToBeginnigFile_hw6,VolumeScanNumberRelativeToBeginingTape_hw7,RayNumberWithinVolumeScan_hw8,PhysicalRecordNumberWithinTheRay_hw9,SweepNumberWithinVolumeScan_hw10,SiteName_hw15_18,TimesTampt,Gate,MaxRangeInKilometer,HieghtInKilometer,SlantRangeInKilometer,Latitude,Longitude,DZ,RainRateInMilimeterPerHour

1,1,1,1,1,Chiang M,1.165933809E9,1,240.0,0.012875759150119848,1.0,18.777842825051607,98.9874654710244,36.0,6.484197773255049

1,1,1,1,1,Chiang M,1.165933809E9,2,240.0,0.02586921473084658,2.0,18.772352242482594,98.99160166686356,36.0,6.484197773255049

1,1,1,1,1,Chiang M,1.165933809E9,3,240.0,0.03898036620194034,3.0,18.766861585813746,98.99573758055878,-32768,0

1,1,1,1,1,Chiang M,1.165933809E9,4,240.0,0.052209213017704315,4.0,18.7613708552325,


Examples of solution5
EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION site

WEATHER RADAR DIGITAL MAP


Visualization of radar image
Visualization of Radar Image site

  • Presented with Satellite Image (RADROP)


Telemetering Data site

For these products, which will be covered on 16 river basins and consisted of 1000 automatic stations throughout Thailand such as;

River basins and automatic stations of Telemetering Project


Examples of solution6
EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION site

TELEMETERING PRODUCTS



Examples of solution7
EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION site

IN SI TU PRODUCTS


Expected output
EXPECTED OUTPUT site

Digital map of risky areas



Application of numerical weather prediction products for specific purposes
Application of Numerical Weather sitePrediction products for specific purposes

- Meteorological Early Warning System; - Flooding areas - Landslide areas - Drought areas estimation etc.

- Agricultural weather forecasting; - Crop cultivation areas - Crop yield estimation etc.


Meteorological Early Warning System site

:Case of Maa Wang River Basin


NORTHERN site

THAILAND


FLASH FLOOD site

INUNDATION

NORTHERN

THAILAND

1994

FLOODS IN NORTHERN THAILAND

IN LASTDECADE

2006

2001

2001

1994

1995

2001

1994

1995

2000

2001

2002

1994

1995

2006

2002

2001

2001

2006

1994

1995

2001

2002

2001



Flooding at Mae Wang basin site

11 September 2006


Flooding at Mae Wang basin site

11 September 2006



Wind Speed & Direction site

2.7m

Air Temperature &

Humidity

2.0m

Short & long-wave

radiation

Rain Fall

1.0m

Air pressure

in Data logger box

-5cm

-10cm

River Water Level

-20cm

-40cm

: Soil Temperature

: Soil Moisture

Ground Water Level

Site description 1

Mae Wang basin in Chiang Mai (basin area : 600 km2)

Instrumentation : Tel-super site

NO.1

NO.2

Making well at NO.4

NO.3


Air Temperature site

2.0m

Air Temperature

2.0m

Data logger box

Rain Fall

Rain Fall

1.0m

1.0m

Data logger box

-5cm

: Soil Temperature

Water Temperature

River Water Level

Site description 2

Instrumentation : Tel-rain site

Instrumentation : Tel-rain site

(with river level observation)

NO.9

NO.5

NO.8

NO.6

NO.11

NO.14

NO.13

NO.12



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