Meteorological Early Warning Systems for Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Disasters
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Meteorological Early Warning Systems for Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Disasters :Case of Maa Wang River Basin. By Somchai Baimoung Director of Weather Forecast Bureau Thai Meteorological Department. PROBLEMS?.

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By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

Meteorological Early Warning Systems for Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Disasters:Case of Maa Wang River Basin

By

Somchai Baimoung

Director of Weather Forecast Bureau

Thai Meteorological Department


Problems

PROBLEMS?

  • To reduce the possibility of loss of life, personal injury, and damage to property and fragile environments, therefore, meteorological early warning systems in Thailand must be set up (easily and clearly to understand for local people).

  • Up to now, every related governmental institutions try to establish theirs own early warning system, but the preliminary data must come from TMD.

  • Natural hazardous always occur in local scale and highly mountainous areas


Problems1

PROBLEMS?

  • In this moment, the perfect forecasting system would not be able to deliver precise forecast.

  • The communication between local people in risky areas with government offices has just begun, not fully successful.


How to solve

HOW TO SOLVE?

  • Hopefully, setting up the techniques integration of numerical weather prediction products with remote sensing data and geographic information system may be a necessary appropriate tools nowadays.

  • These, must be done for developing, manipulating, and also implementing to each appropriate risky area in any regions.

  • If it is successful, then the gained knowledge and methodology from this site can be a road map for other risky areas of Thailand.


Data used methodology

DATA USED & METHODOLOGY

Digital Form

Digital map

of

Risky Areas

in

1:25,000

1:4,000

NWP Products

SatelliteProducts

Linear Combination

Using GIS

Radar Products

Telemetering Products

In situ Products


Data used in digital form

DATA USED (in digital form)

  • NWP Products;

    - Unified model: Thailand model (17 X 17 km.),

    Meso scale model (3 X 3 km.)

    - MM5/WRF: Thailand model (12 X 12 km.)

    Meso scale model (3 X 3 km.)

  • Satellite Products;

    - MT-SAT, NOAA 12-18, MODIS, FY, THEOS

  • Weather Radar Products

    - 26 weather radar stations data

  • Telemetering Products

    - 1,000 stations (approximate)

  • In situ Products

    - Soil data, Land use/Land cover, DEM, Topographical data

    Slope data, Aspect data, etc


New unified model products using gis

New Unified model Products using GIS

Detailed:

- Thailand digital map scale 1:250,000 with administration

boundaries

- Interpolation using “Kriging techniques” with 17 km res.

- To be in form of grid cell with 1 km spatial resolution

- Using GIS software so-called “Arc view”

- Used for any met. parameters


Unified model in text file format

Unified model in text file format


Each grid cell format with 17 km resolution

Each Grid cell format with 17 km resolution


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

Grid cell format superimposed on Thailand digital map with 1 km spatial resolution for 24 hrs accumulated rainfall


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

2. MM5&WRF Model Output (Experimental used),which can issue a variety of met. variables for weather forecast every 12 hrs with in 3 days period for instance,

MM5 (Res.12 km)

WRF (Res.12 km)


Examples of solution

EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION

MM5/WRF PROJECTION


Examples of solution1

EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION

MM5/WRF DATA

LONG, LAT, VAR007 68.9438, 39.4970, 261.6260 69.4474, 39.5502, 276.0664 69.9515, 39.6026, 229.2266 70.4562, 39.6542, 164.4404 70.9613, 39.7051, 105.9023 71.4670, 39.7551, 71.0498 71.9731, 39.8044, 44.2188 72.4798, 39.8529, 64.6318 72.9869, 39.9005, 197.4785 73.4945, 39.9473, 277.1563 74.0026, 39.9934, 275.0801 74.5111, 40.0386, 105.2002 75.0201, 40.0830, -126.6797 75.5296, 40.1265, 23.5176 76.0394, 40.1692, 169.5322 76.5498, 40.2111, 181.0020 77.0605, 40.2522, 113.6992 77.5717, 40.2924, 34.3262 78.0833, 40.3317, -3.3252 78.5953, 40.3702, -70.2490 79.1077, 40.4079, -154.9531 79.6205, 40.4447, -142.7148 80.1337, 40.4806, -125.9580 80.6472, 40.5157, -108.4707 81.1611, 40.5499,

-21.8350 81.6754, 40.5832, 107.7773 82.1900, 40.6156, 211.9580 82.7050, 40.6472, 282.4521 83.2203, 40.6779, 311.5059 83.7359, 40.7077, 342.0850 84.2518, 40.7366, 333.2910 84.7681, 40.7646,


New mm5 model products using gis

New MM5 model Products using GIS

Detailed:

- Thailand digital map scale 1:250,000 with administration

boundaries

- Interpolation using “Kriging techniques” with 12 km res.

- To be in form of grid cell with 1 km spatial resolution

- Using GIS software so-called “Arc view”

- Used for any met. parameters


Mm5 model in text file format

MM5 model in text file format


Each grid cell format with 12 km resolution

Each Grid cell format with 12 km resolution


Each grid cell format with 12 km resolution using gis

Each Grid cell format with 12 km resolution using GIS


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

Grid cell format superimposed on Thailand digital map with 1 km spatial resolution for 7-days accumulated rainfall


Mtsat 1r imageries

MTSAT-1R Imageries

VIS image

IR image


Examples of solution2

EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION

SATELLITE PRODUCTS


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

R:G:B:2:1:1

NDVI

NOAA Imageries


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

MODIS Image of Thailand Band 121 (non registration)


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

Radar Imageries

For these products, which will be consisted of 26 sites such as;

Chiang Mai

Don Maung, Bangkok


New weather radar imageries with gis techniques chiang mai site

New weather radar imageries with GIS techniques, Chiang Mai site


New weather radar imageries with gis techniques ra yong site

New weather radar imageries with GIS techniques, Ra Yong site


New weather radar imageries with gis techniques ra yong site1

New weather radar imageries with GIS techniques, Ra Yong site


New weather radar imageries with gis techniques ra yong site2

New weather radar imageries with GIS techniques, Ra Yong site


New weather radar imageries with gis techniques ra yong site3

New weather radar imageries with GIS techniques, Ra Yong site


New weather radar imageries with gis techniques ra yong site4

New weather radar imageries with GIS techniques, Ra Yong site


New weather radar imageries with gis techniques ra yong site5

New weather radar imageries with GIS techniques, Ra Yong site


New weather radar imageries with gis techniques ra yong site6

New weather radar imageries with GIS techniques, Ra Yong site


Examples of solution3

EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION

WEATHER RADAR NETWORK


Examples of solution4

EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION

WEATHER RADAR DATA

PhysicalRecordnumberRelativeToBeginnigFile_hw6,VolumeScanNumberRelativeToBeginingTape_hw7,RayNumberWithinVolumeScan_hw8,PhysicalRecordNumberWithinTheRay_hw9,SweepNumberWithinVolumeScan_hw10,SiteName_hw15_18,TimesTampt,Gate,MaxRangeInKilometer,HieghtInKilometer,SlantRangeInKilometer,Latitude,Longitude,DZ,RainRateInMilimeterPerHour

1,1,1,1,1,Chiang M,1.165933809E9,1,240.0,0.012875759150119848,1.0,18.777842825051607,98.9874654710244,36.0,6.484197773255049

1,1,1,1,1,Chiang M,1.165933809E9,2,240.0,0.02586921473084658,2.0,18.772352242482594,98.99160166686356,36.0,6.484197773255049

1,1,1,1,1,Chiang M,1.165933809E9,3,240.0,0.03898036620194034,3.0,18.766861585813746,98.99573758055878,-32768,0

1,1,1,1,1,Chiang M,1.165933809E9,4,240.0,0.052209213017704315,4.0,18.7613708552325,


Examples of solution5

EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION

WEATHER RADAR DIGITAL MAP


Visualization of radar image

Visualization of Radar Image

  • Presented with Satellite Image (RADROP)


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

Telemetering Data

For these products, which will be covered on 16 river basins and consisted of 1000 automatic stations throughout Thailand such as;

River basins and automatic stations of Telemetering Project


Examples of solution6

EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION

TELEMETERING PRODUCTS


Telemetering data with gis techniques

Telemetering Data with GIS techniques


Examples of solution7

EXAMPLES OF SOLUTION

IN SI TU PRODUCTS


Expected output

EXPECTED OUTPUT

Digital map of risky areas


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

Digital map shown the flooded areas


Application of numerical weather prediction products for specific purposes

Application of Numerical Weather Prediction products for specific purposes

- Meteorological Early Warning System;- Flooding areas- Landslide areas- Drought areas estimation etc.

- Agricultural weather forecasting;- Crop cultivation areas- Crop yield estimation etc.


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

Meteorological Early Warning System

:Case of Maa Wang River Basin


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

NORTHERN

THAILAND


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

FLASH FLOOD

INUNDATION

NORTHERN

THAILAND

1994

FLOODS IN NORTHERN THAILAND

IN LASTDECADE

2006

2001

2001

1994

1995

2001

1994

1995

2000

2001

2002

1994

1995

2006

2002

2001

2001

2006

1994

1995

2001

2002

2001


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

MAE WANG BASIN -THAILAND


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

Flooding at Mae Wang basin

11 September 2006


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

Flooding at Mae Wang basin

11 September 2006


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

Small: IMPAC-T Pilot Project


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

Wind Speed & Direction

2.7m

Air Temperature &

Humidity

2.0m

Short & long-wave

radiation

Rain Fall

1.0m

Air pressure

in Data logger box

-5cm

-10cm

River Water Level

-20cm

-40cm

: Soil Temperature

: Soil Moisture

Ground Water Level

Site description 1

Mae Wang basin in Chiang Mai (basin area : 600 km2)

Instrumentation : Tel-super site

NO.1

NO.2

Making well at NO.4

NO.3


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

Air Temperature

2.0m

Air Temperature

2.0m

Data logger box

Rain Fall

Rain Fall

1.0m

1.0m

Data logger box

-5cm

: Soil Temperature

Water Temperature

River Water Level

Site description 2

Instrumentation : Tel-rain site

Instrumentation : Tel-rain site

(with river level observation)

NO.9

NO.5

NO.8

NO.6

NO.11

NO.14

NO.13

NO.12


By somchai baimoung director of weather forecast bureau thai meteorological department

THANKS YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION


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