Chapter 4 physiology of cells
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Chapter 4 Physiology of Cells. Movement through cell membranes. Substances move through cell membranes in two ways: Passive Transport: does not require any energy activity from the cell membrane Active Transport: requires expenditure of metabolic energy by the cell. PASSIVE TRANSPORT.

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Chapter 4 Physiology of Cells

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Chapter 4 physiology of cells

Chapter 4Physiology of Cells


Movement through cell membranes

Movement through cell membranes

  • Substances move through cell membranes in two ways:

    • Passive Transport: does not require any energy activity from the cell membrane

    • Active Transport: requires expenditure of metabolic energy by the cell


Passive transport

PASSIVE TRANSPORT

  • Diffusion:

    • The spreading of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

    • Simple Diffusion: molecules travel across the phospholipidbilayer

      • Makes the membrane permeable.


Chapter 4 physiology of cells

  • Osmosis:

    • Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

    • Osmotic Pressure

      • Develops from the water pressure during Osmosis

        • Potential Osmotic Pressure-the maximum osmotic pressure that could develop when separated from pure water by a selectively permeable membrane

  • Isotonic

    • Two fluids have the same osmotic pressure

  • Hypertonic

    • Water flows out of the cell and the cell shrivels as a result

    • Solute concentration greater outside of the cell

  • Hypotonic

    • Water flows into the cell and the cell swells up as a result

    • Solute concentration greater inside the cell


Chapter 4 physiology of cells

  • Dialysis

    • Selectively permeable membrane separates larger solute particles into smaller solute particles

  • Facilitated Diffusion

    • Transports substances down a concentration gradient

    • The collision energy of the solute provides required energy


Active transport

Active Transport

movement of solute particles from an area of low concentration to high

concentration and up a concentration gradient by the use of a carrier molecule

  • Endocytosis- bringing extracellular material into the cell

    • Phagocytosis- large particles engulfed by the plasma membrane and fuse with lysosomes, where the particles are digested

    • Pinocytosis- fluid and the substances dissolved in it enter the cell

  • Exocytosis- large molecules (proteins) are pulled by the cytoskeleton and leave the cell through the plasma membrane


Chapter 4 physiology of cells

This is one of multiple images that display receptor-mediated endocytosis.


Cell metabolism

Cell Metabolism

the chemical reactions that occur within the cell

  • ENZYMES – a protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction

    • Structure

      • Proteins

      • Lock-and-Key Model: active site where the enzyme molecule fits into the substrate molecule

    • Chemical catalysts

      • Speed up reaction by reducing the amount of energy needed to start reaction

    • Regulate cell metabolism

    • Continually destroyed and replaced

    • Catalyze a chemical reaction in both ways


Chapter 4 physiology of cells

  • CATABOLISM – operates on the pathway of cellular respiration (breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide and water)

    • Glycolysis

      • Net yield of 2 ATP

      • Anaerobic (does not require oxygen)

      • Occurs outside mitochondria

      • Glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid molecules and that energy is transferred into ATP and NADH

    • Citric Acid Cycle

      • Also known as Krebs Cycle

      • Net yield of 2 ATP

      • Pyruvic acid is converted into acetyl and enters the cycle after losing CO2 and transferring some energy into NADH, ATP, and FADH2

      • Occurs inside the inner chambers of the mitochondria

    • Electron Transport System (ETS)

      • Net yield of 32 ATP

      • Energized electrons are embedded in the cristae of the mitochondria


Chapter 4 physiology of cells

Glycolysis!


Chapter 4 physiology of cells

  • ANABOLISM – protein synthesis

    • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

      • Shape of a double helix

      • Polymer (large molecule made up of many smaller molecules) made up of nucleotides

      • Genes contains the codes for synthesizing one polypeptide

    • Transcription

      • mRNA forms along a segment of DNA to copy a portion of the DNA code and undergoes editing

    • Translation

      • mRNA links with a ribosome

      • tRNA transfers amino acids to the ribosome

      • Joined by peptide bonds which then eventually produces an entire polypeptide chain


Cell growth reproduction

Cell Growth/Reproduction

  • Cell Life Cycle.

  • Kind of important… just a tiny bit.

  • Humans are simple people.

  • So 2 phases.


Cell growth

Cell Growth

  • Cell is already made. Start here.

  • Produce Cytoplasm and Plasma Membrane

    • Protein Synthesis (anabolic process)

      • Amino Acids to Polypeptide to larger more comple

  • = structural proteins and Enzymes


Dna replication

DNA Replication

  • RNA synthesized by enzyme

  • Larger cell triggers mechanisms

  • Synthesizes entire set of DNA

  • Steps of synthesis?

  • Before Reproduction: Chromatids attached by Centromere


Cell reproduction

Cell Reproduction.

  • No, cells do not have sex to reproduce.

  • 1 parent cell = 2 daughter cells.

  • Cytokinesis

  • Mitosis


Mitosis

Mitosis

  • Interphase

  • Prophase

  • Metaphase

  • Anaphase

  • Telophase

  • Meiosis

  • Haploid and Diploid


Chapter 7 skeletal system

Chapter 7Skeletal System

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