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DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGES APPLIED LINGUISTICS IN ENGLISH PROGRAM. ARMY POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL. THEME

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DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGES

APPLIED LINGUISTICS IN

ENGLISH PROGRAM

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ARMY POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL

THEME

Incidence of Recreational Techniques to Reduce Attrition and Improve Learning English as a Second Language on Students of Elementary and Pre-Intermediate levels at “Lincoln College of Foreign Languages Institute” during April – July 2008

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QUITO – ECUADOR

OCTOBER- 2008

AUTHOR:

JUAN CARLOS DAVILA HERRERIA

ADVISORS:

DIRECTOR: MSC. MARIA EUGENIA ARCOS

CODIRECTOR: MSC. EDGAR BOLAÑOS

what is recreation
What is Recreation?
  • To feel motivated during a learning process at any stage. Kind of fun to ease the press of work or study

What is Attrition?

  • It is an emotional state of a student in which he feels very tired of studying, and doesn’t want to continue any more
summary
SUMMARY
  • Negative aspects in the English classes
  • Lack of interest for learning English
  • Attrition of students
  • Importance of recreational activities
introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • Education: important and complex human endeavor
  • Learners should feel motivated to learn
  • Motivation is like a motor that moves us externally and internally
  • Learning involves adoption of new social-cultural behavior and has a social impact on the learner: cognitive - affective
  • RecreationalActivities are composed of interest on teaching, curiosity, playing, and desire of having fun.
introduction1
INTRODUCTION
  • Chapter I: Problem Identification
  • Chapter II: Theoretical Frame
  • Chapter III: Methodology
  • Chapter IV: Analysis-Interpretation of Results
  • Chapter V: Conclusions - Recommendations
  • Chapter VI: Proposal
  • Chapter VII: Bibliography and annexes
chapter i
CHAPTER I

PROBLEMATIC SITUATION

Problem Identification

Problem Setting

Variables Working Out

Objectives

Justification

problem identification
Problem Identification

ATTRITION

OF STUDENTS

ENGLISH IS

JUST ANOTHER

BORING

SUBJECT

POOR

ENGLISH

LEARNING

LACK OF

RECREATIONAL

TEACHING

TECHNIQUES

TEACHERS USE

THE SAME OLD

TECHNIQUES

LEARNERS

DON’T WANT

TO LEARN

STUDENTS ARE

NOT TREATED

AS PEOPLE

problem setting
Problem Setting

I’m Tired

  • Lack of recreational teaching techniques to reduce attrition and improve learning English as a second language on students of “Lincoln College of foreign languages”
secondary problems
Secondary Problems
  • Lack of recreational teaching methods makes learners refuse activities to participate in class,
  • Attrition on students makes them lose the interest for the new knowledge”
  • Poor English learning makes students reject to learn a new language;
variables working out
Variables Working Out

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

RECREATIONAL TEACHING TECHNIQUES

  • Instructive Play; Teaching by Playing; Environments for Learning; Recreational Materials

DEPENDENT VARIABLES

REDUCTION OF ATTRITION

  • Keeping Students Busy; Work Groups; Interest of Students; Participation of Learners

LEARNING IMPROVEMENT

  • Cooperative learning; Applying knowledge in real situations
objectives
Objectives

GENERAL OBJECTIVE

  • To determine the level of incidence of using recreational teaching techniques to reduce attrition and improve learning English as a second language on students of elementary and pre-intermediate levels at “LINCOLN COLLEGE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES INSTITUTE
objectives1
Objectives

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

  • To analyze the different characteristics of using recreational English teaching techniques
  • To determine the reduction of attrition during the English learning process on students
  • To improve the learning English process on students
justification
Justification
  • Necessity to use new playful activities for teaching English
  • Students won’t feel bored and reduce their attrition for the language
  • Students feel confident and develop their skills and competences
chapter ii

THEORETICAL FRAME

Theoretical and

Conceptual Focus

Structure

Relation Dependant

Independent Variables

Hypothesis System

CHAPTER II
theoretical and conceptual focus
Theoretical and Conceptual Focus
  • Attrition is one of the hardest things to reduce
  • Recreation is a powerful tool to teach
  • Teacher’s mission is to educate students
  • Learners need to feel competent and successful
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STRUCTURE

DEPENDANT VARIABLE

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

REDUCTION OF ATTRITION

RECREATIONALTECHNIQUES

Keeping Students Busy

Instructive Play

Work Groups

Teaching by Playing

Interest of Students

Environments for Learning

Participation of Learners

LEARNING IMPROVEMENT

Recreational Material

Cooperative Learning

Application of English

RELATION BETWEEN INDEPENDENT

AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES

independent variable recreational techni ques
INDEPENDENT VARIABLERecreational Techniques
  • Set of playful procedures, methods and ideas for teaching
  • Face those tired, and unmotivated students
  • Link them with the syllabus,
  • Look for benefits for students
  • Students assume responsibility for interacting with information,
independent variable instructive play
INDEPENDENT VARIABLEInstructive Play

Games for teaching-learning process are good if they promote the physical, mental, emotional, social, and spiritual maturation

  • Educational Toys (blocks, clay, dolls, paste, paint)
  • Finger Plays (verses and rhythms with their fingers)
  • Puzzles and Contests (quizzes, crossword puzzles)
  • Values (observe the child in a natural situation)
independent variable teaching by playing
INDEPENDENT VARIABLETeaching by Playing

‘Meaningfulness‘: learners respond to the content in a

definite way. If they are amused, angered, intrigued or

Surprised the content is clearly meaningful to them

  • Should learning be serious?
  • Why to Use Games in Class?
  • How to Choose Games?
  • General Benefits of Games
    • Affective,Cognitive,Class Dynamics,Adaptability
independent variable playful activities
INDEPENDENT VARIABLEPlayful Activities
  • Playful activities are used as short warm-ups or at the end of a lesson; for example:
  • Point to it
  • Put the cards in order
  • Numbered list
  • Shopping
  • Snakes and ladders
  • Don’t take the last card
  • The hang man
  • Three card shuffle
  • Me against me
  • It takes two
  • Join the dots; etc.
independent variable environments for learning
INDEPENDENT VARIABLEEnvironments for Learning
  • Get them interested in you as a person and teacher. If they feel respect they’ll have confidence and motivation
  • Keep Yourself Motivated
  • Be an Individual
  • Have Fun and Be Silly
  • Play Games
  • Get Them Moving
  • Stick to a Schedule
  • Variety is the Spice of Life
  • Give Them Options
  • Plan an ending term program
independent variable use of recreational material
INDEPENDENT VARIABLEUse of Recreational Material
  • A teacher has to update and bring up new ideas for teaching and entertaining students
  • We can find material on internet, videos, video games, magazines, photographs, television, billboards
  • Students must keep an English dairy
dependent variable reduction of attrition
DEPENDENT VARIABLEReduction of Attrition
  • Attrition is boredom: students get tired of everything
  • Kind of depression, and anger inside
  • The professor should help learner-learner integration and collaboration
  • High attrition rates have a negative impact in schools
  • Attrition is a measure to determine education quality of an institution
dependent variable keeping students busy
DEPENDENT VARIABLEKeeping Students Busy
  • A bored student, does not learn very well
  • A busy student learns faster and better and feels useful and helpful
  • Role Playing or Skills Practice
  • In-Class Writing
  • Debates
dependent variable work in group
DEPENDENT VARIABLEWork in Group
  • Group work, encourages peer learning and support

Advantages

  • Each member has something to contribute
  • You can learn more, and understand things better
  • It makes the assignment or project more fun
  • Students really like groups
  • Teamwork improves social skills and provides a more "real-life" work scenario
dependent variable interest of students
DEPENDENT VARIABLEInterest of Students
  • What students want in a teacher: clarity, command, knowledge sincerity, involvement
  • How students respond positively: interaction, effort, examples, real issues, use of material, organization
  • Tips for keeping students interested: expectation, clarify the aim, good comments, feedback, assistance, encourage them, be punctual.
dependent variable participation of learners
DEPENDENT VARIABLEParticipation of Learners
  • Make them talk using all the knowledge acquired
  • Your challenge is to engage students, keep them talking to each other
  • General Strategies: know them, make circles, come early to talk informally, no comments
  • How to Increase Participation: they speak in turns, icebreaker activity, divide students into small groups, assign roles
  • How to Keep Students Talking: talk to them outside, use nonverbal signs, encourage quiet students, sit next to them, discourage excessive ones, give the same time to all students
dependent variable learning improvement
DEPENDENT VARIABLELearning Improvement
  • Good learning increases the capacity for effective action
  • As a good teacher do something interesting in class, and have fun
  • As an engaged student:
  • Motivate yourself
  • Set achievable goals
  • Improve your skills
dependent variable cooperative learning
DEPENDENT VARIABLECooperative Learning
  • Strategy: small teams, use learning activities to improve their understanding
  • Why cooperative learning?
  • Positive interdependence
  • Face-to-face interaction
  • Individual & group accountability
  • Interpersonal & small-group skills
  • Group processing
  • Activities: jigsaw, think pair, 3 step interview, number heads together
dependent variable applying english in real situati ons
DEPENDENT VARIABLEApplying English in Real Situations
  • Attitude: be positive, know your students, understand them
  • Application of English: English is demanded everywhere you go
  • We use English and internet for:
  • Looking for information, doing homework, chatting with friends, sending e-mails, designing projects, playing and amusement
relation independent dependant variables
Relation Independent – Dependant Variables
  • The use of recreational techniques will reduce the attrition on students, and they will be interested in learning; in addition, they can improve learning by increasing their knowledge
  • All the strategies and techniques developed have one great objective that is to determine the level of incidence of using these techniques to reduce the attrition of students and improve their learning
hypotheses system
HYPOTHESES SYSTEM
  • Working Hypothesis

The lack of recreational teaching techniques is affecting the learning-process and causing attrition on students

  • Alternative Hypothesis

The use of recreational teaching techniques wake up students´ interest, reduce attrition and improve their learning process

  • Null Hypothesis

The lack of recreational teaching techniques is not affecting the learning-process and it does not cause attrition on students

chapter iii

METHODOLOGY

Research Type

and Design

Population and Sample

Variables Working Out

Instruments for

Data Collection

Processing Information

CHAPTER III
interpretation of results
INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

Use of Recreational Techniques in the Learning ProcessStudents’ Survey

interpretation of results1
INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

Use of Recreational Techniques in the Learning ProcessTeachers’ Survey

chi square calculation
CHI-SQUARE CALCULATION

X2 = ∑ (O - E)2

E

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Theoretical Chi-square
  • GL = (N0 Rows -1) (N0 Columns -1)
  • GL = (2-1) (3-1)
  • GL = 2
  • Significance Level: 0, 01

Statistical Decision:

With 2 degrees of freedom and a level of significance of 0, 01, it corresponds to a Theoretical Chi Square of 9,210 established in the chi square statistical table

Conclusion:

Once calculated Chi Squared (18,95) higher than the theoretical Chi Squared (9,210), the null hypothesis “Ho” (The lack of recreational teaching techniques isn’t affecting the English learning-process and it doesn’t cause attrition on students), is not accepted.

chapter vi
CHAPTER VI

Proposal

A two day, four hour daily Seminar on: “Use of Recreational English Teaching Techniques”, for English teachers of “Lincoln College of Foreign Languages” Institute.

Objectives

  • To show the importance of applying Recreational Teaching Techniques in the teaching-learning process;
  • To show how recreation helps teachers and students reduce attrition and improve learning on students
  • To realize that English can be learned and taught in a funny way
  • To understand that “Ignorance of new teaching methods isnotan excuse for not improving the way of teaching
recreational english teaching techniques
RECREATIONAL ENGLISH TEACHING TECHNIQUES

DAY 1

  • Goals/Objectives of the Seminar
  • Recreational Teaching Techniques:
  • Instructive Play:
  • Teaching by Playing:
  • Environments for Learning
  • Recreational Material and Graphic Tools

DAY 2

  • Attrition of English Learners
  • Why to keep your students busy
  • Why and How to work in groups
  • Interest and participation of students in the learning process
  • How to improve English learning on your students
  • Questions from the teachers present
  • Analysis of the seminar by the teachers present
  • Comments and Suggestions
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