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THE NOUN PHRASE (NP)

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THE NOUN PHRASE (NP). PHRASES. Phrase is a word or a group of words Form (category) versus syntactic role (function) of phrases Example 1 (same category, different function): The garden looks wonderful. I watered the garden . Example 2 (same function, different categories):

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phrases
PHRASES
  • Phrase is a word or a group of words
  • Form (category) versus syntactic role (function) of phrases

Example 1 (same category, different function):

The garden looks wonderful.

I watered the garden.

Example 2 (same function, different categories):

That the garden was beautiful was clear.

The beauty of the garden was clear.

np main functions
NP: MAIN FUNCTIONS
  • Noun phrase: a noun + zero or more dependents (Huddleson/Pullum p. 13)
  • Subject:

e.g. The girl was standing in the street.

  • Object

e.g. The girl put the bicycle on the ground.

  • Complement

e.g. The girl is an athlete.

np structural elements
NP: STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  • The head
  • Determiners
  • Premodifiers
  • Postmodifiers
  • Schematic representation of the NP structure:

(determiners) (pre-modifiers) noun (post-modifiers)

e.g. The two wild horses which were grazing on the front lawn were beautiful.

the head
THE HEAD
  • The head (cannot be left out): typically a noun or a pronoun

e.g. Tom is a sailor.

Anybody can see that.

nouns
NOUNS
  • Definition: a grammatically distinct category of words which includes those denoting all kinds of physical objects, such as persons, animals and inanimate objects (Huddleston/Pullum p. 83)
  • Nouns inflect for number (singular or plural) and case (common/plain case and genitive case)
types of nouns
TYPES OF NOUNS
  • Proper and common
  • Common nouns: count and non-count (mass)
  • Count and non-count nouns: concrete and abstract
structural types of nps
Structural types of NPs
  • Basic

e.g. She is Mary Smith.

The girl is Mary Smith.

  • Complex

e.g. The pretty girl in the corner is Mary Smith.

basic np
“BASIC” NP
  • “Basic” vs. “complex” NP

Examples of basic NPs:

Your son made a suggestion.

Example of complex NP:

They rejected the suggestion which your son made.

pronouns
PRONOUNS
  • N.B. Huddleston/Pullum treat pronouns as a subtype of noun (p. 84)
  • Pronouns cannot take determiners as dependents

e.g. *A she was sitting at the table.

pronouns1
PRONOUNS
  • Central:

a) Personal: I, you, he, she, it, we, they (objective case included: e.g. me, him, her, etc)

b) reflexive (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves)

c) possessive (mine, yours, hers, his, its, ours, theirs)

pronouns2
PRONOUNS
  • Personal pronouns display person contrast, number contrast, in the 3rd person three-way gender contrast, in the 1st and 3rd person they display contrast in case (subjective, objective)
  • Reflexive pronouns are always coreferential with a noun or another pronoun (gender, number and person agreement)
  • Possessive determiners vs. pronouns
pronouns types cont
PRONOUNS, types (cont)
  • Relative (do not display person contrast):
  • wh- items: who, whom, whose, which

b) that and zero

  • Interrogative (do not display person contrast): who, whom, whose, which, what
  • Demonstrative (do not display person contrast): that/this; these/those
  • Indefinite (do not display person contrast): some/any/no/every + (thing, body, one); each; all/both; neither/either; none; some; any
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