Lecture 3 Noun and Noun Phrase. Objectives: 1. Classification of nouns. 2. Number forms of nouns 3. Plural forms of the compound nouns 4. Number forms of the material nouns 5. Number forms of the abstract nouns. Lecture 3 Noun and Noun Phrase. 1. Classification of nouns.
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Lecture 3 Noun and Noun Phrase
1. Classification of nouns.
Nouns can be classified according to word formation, lexical meaning and grammatical form.
1) Simple, compound and derivative nouns
2) Proper and common nouns
3) Countable and uncountable nouns
1）Simple, compound and derivative nouns
A simple noun is a noun that contains only one free morpheme (eg; chair, land, faith).
A compound noun is a noun that is composed of two or more morphemes (eg: armchair, farmland).
A derivative noun is a noun that comes from a verb, an adjective or a simple noun with affix (eg: arrangement, greatness, patriotism).
2）Proper and common nouns
A proper noun is a name used for a particular person, place or thing, and spelt with a capital initial letter (eg: Anderson, Britain).
A common noun is a name common to a class of people, things or abstract ideas. Common nouns can be further classified into individual, collective, material, and abstract nouns ( eg: a boy, air, glory).
3）Countable and uncountable nouns
A countable noun is a noun that has a plural form and which can collocate with numbers and with such determiners as a (an), many, few, these, those, several, etc
An uncountable noun is a noun that cannot go with the above-mentioned words
2. Number forms of nouns
Number is a grammatical distinction which determines whether a noun or determiner is singular or plural.
1) Regular and irregular plural
Individual nouns are all countable and therefore have singular and plural forms. The singular form of an individual noun, which shares the same form as the base of the word, can take such determiners as a(an) and one( eg: a / one desk).
The plural form of an individual noun can be regular or irregular.
The regular plural is formed by adding –s or –es to the base
eg: days, churches, countries, loaves, wives, etc
a. The irregular plural form is formed by other means such as by changing the internal vowel or by changing the ending of the noun.
eg: tooth-teeth, foot-feet，
goose- geese， man-men ，
All his _____ are swans.
A) geese B) goose C) gooses D) geeses
b. Irregular plurals also include some words of foreign origin, borrowed from Greek, Latin or Foreign plurals, their formation are different
analysis（分析）---- analyses [ə'næləsi:z]
thesis（论文）--- theses ['θi:si:z]
stratum['streitəm] （阶层）--- strata ['streitə]
radius（半径）-- radii ['reidiai]
-is— -es -um-- -a -on--- -a -us—ae -a--- -ae
This natural phenomena which we just
discovered is most interesting.
2) For some nouns, their singular and plural number share the same form
a. one kind is formed in singular ending
aircraft（飞机）， horsepower（马力）， hovercraft（气垫船），Japanese，
Chinese， Swiss ，
yuan（元）， jin（斤） etc.
b. The other kind is formed in plural ending
species（种） means（方法） series（系列）headquarters （司令部） works（工厂） crossroads（十字路口） barracks（兵营）
When they are used as subject, the verb form should match its subject in number. eg :
--The TV series was proved to be much better than I had expected.
3) Other nouns ending in –s
(1) Names for things made of two parts are usu. used as plural. But when they are preceded by such unit nouns as a pair of and two pairs of, the number form of the following verb is generally determined by the number marker of the unit noun.
glasses scissors compasses tongs crossroads pliers spectacles trousers pants scales shears tweezers stockings socks shorts gloves jeans
Joe’s new trousers are black and white.
Two pairs of pliers（钳子）are missing from my tool box.
(2) Nouns usu. taking plural endings are generally used as plural
archives档案 clothes 衣服 contents 内容goods货物, effects 财物, papers, greens青菜, looks外貌, manners礼貌, customs进口税, arms武器, riches财富.
--The contents of this book are most fascinating.
--Half his goods are from China
(3) Nouns ending in –ings such as clippings, diggings, etc are generally used as plural
The sweepings of the room have been disposed of.
There are also nouns such as barracks and headquarters, means, series, species, works whose singular and plural number share the same form .
These nouns are treated as plural when used in the plural sense, or vice versa.
A barracks was stormed by the enemy troops.
Two barracks in the suburbs have been surrounded.
A headquarters was set up to direct the operation
Their headquarters are in Paris
3.Plural forms of the compound nouns
A compound noun is made up of two or more than two words, there are some rules to be followed in its formation. Change the head noun of the compound word into plural.
2）The head noun is the second word
bystander --- bystanders（旁观者）
footman --- footmen （男仆）
on-looker --- on-lookers（旁观者）
3) If there isn’t a countable noun in the compound, add-s at the end of the last word
forget-me-not --- forget-me-nots（勿忘我）
go-between ---- go-betweens（中间人）
stand-by ----- stand-bys（靠山）
take-off ---- take-offs（起飞）
stand-in ---- stand-ins（临时演员）
grown-up ---- grown-ups（成年人）
4) When there are two head nouns in a compound word, change the two head words into plural.
man-servant ----- men-servants
woman journalist ---- women journalists
5) When a compound noun is made up of a noun and an adjective, change the noun into plural.
Attorney [ə'tə:ni] general ----- attorneys general（检查总长）
cut-throat ----- cut-throats（凶手）
sweet-heart ---- sweet-hearts（爱人）
6) When the first word is boy，girl，maid, change the second word into plural.
boy friend ----- boy friends lady driver ----- lady drivers maid servant------ maid servants
7) When a compound word is ended in –ful, add-s at the end of- ful or the noun.
handful --- handfuls / handsful 一把；一小撮
houseful---- housefuls / housesful 满屋，一屋子
spoonful ---- spoonfuls 一匙
armful ---- armfuls 一抱
cupful ---- cupfuls 一杯
mouthful---- mouthfuls 一口
4．Number forms of the material nouns
Material nouns are generally uncountable and have no plural forms. When used to mean the material itself, they are uncountable, but when used in other senses, they are countable.
beer cake cheese cloth coal
cotton fur glue ice ink iron
jam coffee juice meat medicine
metal milk oil paper plastic rain
snow soap soup soil steel sugar
tea wool water wine wood wool etc.
There are also material nouns that can take plural endings. These nouns , though ending in –s, remain uncountable.
Eg: sands / waters
( large expanse of sand or water)
foods/ fruits ( a variety of food or fruit)
1) Some material nouns used as countable nouns mean “a portion of” or “a cup of”（表示一份，一杯）
Two strong black coffees, please.
2） Some material nouns can be used as countable nouns , having the meaning of “a kind of”
It was a special tea which tastes of orange blossoms.
3） There are also material nouns that can take plural endings but they are used in other senses .
She forbids any vessels to enter her territorial waters.
It was now the time of the spring rains.
5. Number forms of the abstract nouns
Abstract nouns are mostly uncountable. But there are a few abstract nouns
that are countable. eg:
a victory--- two victories
The most used abstract nouns:
experience failure faith fashion
fear freedom fun growth confidence
joy luck purity reality relief
power trust waste wealth weather
welfare work worth youth etc.
2) Sometimes an abstract noun can have a (an)/the or plural forms，thus making it specified, that is, the mere addition of a plural ending has the effect of changing the meaning of the base.
--He works hard for the welfare of the poor.
--The oppressive weather lasted only a few days.
--There is a beauty in simplicity.
--He had always had a warm affection for me.
--He has no sympathy for beggars. (同情)
--He is a man of wide sympathies. （同情心）
--I sent my sympathies to the relatives of the dead. （ 慰问）
--The teachers met once a year to exchange experience（经验）
--Please tell us about your experiences in Africa.（经历）
--My life in China was an unforgettable experience. （经历）
3) There are a few nouns such as family, room, mouth, ear can be used as abstract noun in set phrases
to have much family = too heavy family burden
to have much winter= a too long spell of cold weather
to have much mouth =to talk too much
to have too little ear= to be not inclined to listen to others
to have room for = to have a need for
to feel the patriot rise= to feel the patriotic feeling rise
to be fool enough =to be foolish enough
more of a fool = more foolish
less of a fool= less foolish
as much as a fool as =as foolish as
too much of a fool = too foolish
some other words are as follows: man, coward, coquette, politician, sportsman, scholar, poet etc.
--He was enough of a man to tell the truth.
--He is something of a poet.
--The girl was a little of a coquette.
6． Problems to be noted when the uncountable nouns are used
There are a few points to be noted.
(Uncountable nouns include abstract nouns and material nouns)
The most used uncountable nouns :
information knowledge experience furniture luggage baggage equipment jewellery advice sugar traffic homework
mail population damage idea clothing bread
cloth meat paper glass soap fruit
1）uncountable nouns have no plural forms
2） uncountable nouns can’t be used with such determiners as a，an，one，two，each，many，several，these，those. eg：
a piece of mail 一个邮件
those pieces of information 那些情报
3） uncountable nouns can be used with such determiners as the，some，much，a little， a lot of，a great / good deal of，a large / small amount of，a plentyof etc.
a lot of traffic 繁忙的交通
a plenty of time 充足的时间
4）Material nouns are uncountable nouns which can’t be used with a/an or other numerals ,if we want to denote a part of a whole or the quantity of an undifferentiated mass, we can use Partitives/ Unit Nouns(单位词)
（1） Partitives shown by shapes of things：
a loaf of bread 一条面包 a bar of soap 一条肥皂
a cake of soap一块肥皂 a slice of meat一片肉
a lump of sugar 一块方糖
a sheet (piece) of paper一张纸 a block of ice 一块冰 a tube of paste 一筒牙膏
a pack of cigarette一包香烟 a body of water 一汪水
a piece of chalk一支粉笔
（2） Partitives shown by unit of vessels(容器)
a glass of water
a bottle of beer
a bucket of water
a bag of flour
a bowl of rice
a basket of fruit
a basin of water
a cup of tea
（3） Partitives shown by unit of measure or quality:
a pound of butter an item of news
a pair of shoes a litre of gasoline
a suit of clothing a gallon of gasoline
a set of furniture a yard of cloth
a mass of sand a spoonful of soup