We Start With. A Science Lesson. What We Too Often Hear.
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1. The Influence of Charles Darwin on Psychology
2. We Start With
A Science Lesson
3. What We Too Often Hear
“Evolution is not a fact but only a theory”
4. To Believe that Evolution is Not a Fact…
Is to argue that all species that exist today have existed from the beginning of time and that species do not change.
5. Evolution is a Fact
Scientists do not doubt that evolution has been occurring and is occurring.
The debate is about HOW evolution occurs.
7. Darwin’s Grandfather
8. Darwin’s Parents
9. Wedgwood Pottery
Worked in secret in an estimated 10,000 experiments to create the “Jasper ware” that made him famous and wealthy.
10. The Beagle Needs a Naturalist “I have stated that I consider you to be the best qualified person I know who is likely to undertake such a situation – I state this not on the supposition of your being a finished Naturalist, but as simply qualified for collecting, observing, and noting anything worthy to be noted in Natural History… The Voyage is to last 2 years… In short I suppose there never was a finer chance for a man of zeal and spirit.”
Henslow to Darwin, August 24, 1831
11. Darwin Has to Decline “As far as my own mind is concerned, I should I think, certainly most gladly have accepted the opportunity, which you so kindly offered me. But my Father, although he does not decidedly refuse me, gives such strong advice against going, that I should not be comfortable if I did not follow it.”
Darwin to Henslow, August 30, 1831
12. Darwin’s Father’s Objections “Disreputable to my character as a Clergyman hereafter
A wild scheme
That they must have offered to many others before me, the place of Naturalist
And from it not being accepted there must be some serious objection to the vessel or expedition
That I should never settle down to steady life thereafter
That my accommodations would be most uncomfortable
That you should consider it as again changing my profession
That it would be a useless undertaking”
Darwin to his father, August 31, 1831
13. Darwin’s Father Changes His Mind “I take the liberty of writing to you according to Mr. Peacock’s desire to acquaint you with my acceptance of the offer of going with Capt Fitzroy. Perhaps you have received a letter from Mr. Peacock, stating my refusal; this was owing to my Father not at first approving of the plan, since which time he has reconsidered the subject & has given his consent & therefore if the appointment is not already filled up, I shall be very happy to have the honor of accepting it.”
Darwin to Francis Beaufort, September 1, 1831
14. Fitzroy Interviews Darwin
Fitzroy believed in physiognomy and felt that the shape of Darwin’s nose indicated laziness. But in his interview, Darwin impressed Fitzroy and was given the position.
15. Two Years Became Five Years December 1831 – October 1836
16. The Beagle Voyage Geological and Biological Discoveries
17. The Beagle Voyage
The age of the earth
The geographical distribution of species
Extinct species in rock formations suggesting great age
The great variations in species
18. The Return Home: 1836 Election to the London Geological Society (1836)
Read Malthus’ 1798 essay (1838)
Election to the Royal Society (1839)
First book – Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, under the Command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N., from 1832 to 1836 (1839)
19. Marriage: 1839
20. The House at Down: 1842
21. Down House
22. Down House
23. Discussions of the “Mystery of Mysteries”
24. A Package in the Mail “Your words have come true with a vengeance – that I should be forestalled… I never saw a more striking coincidence; if Wallace had my MS. sketch written out in 1842, he could not have made a better short abstract!”
Darwin to Lyell, June 18, 1858
25. Evolution by Natural Selection Variation
Environmental pressures and changes
26. The Origin
27. A Tentative Opening Paragraph “While on board H.M.S. Beagle as naturalist, I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of the organic beings inhabiting South America… These facts … seemed to throw light on the origin of species – that mystery of mysteries…. On my return home, it occurred to me in 1837, that something might perhaps be made out on this question by patiently accumulating and reflecting on all sorts of facts…. After five years’ work I allowed myself to speculate on the subject and drew up some short notes; those I enlarged in 1844 into a sketch of the conclusions, which then seemed to me probable…”
Charles Darwin (1859)
28. And the Closing Sentence “There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved.” Charles Darwin (1859)
29. The Origin in 1993
30. The Origin in 2009 On the Origin of Species DARWIN, Charles
Bookseller: Bauman Rare Books (Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.) Bookseller Rating: Price: US$ 197,000.00 [Convert Currency] Quantity: 1 Shipping within U.S.A.: US$ 3.50 [Rates & Speeds]
Book Description: 1859, 1859. DARWIN, Charles. On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection, Or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle For Life. London: John Murray, 1859. Octavo, original green cloth, uncut. Housed in custom half morocco clamshell box. $197,000. Rare first edition, in original cloth, of "certainly the most important biological book ever written" (Freeman), one of only 1250 copies. A beautiful copy, most scarce in this condition, with fine scientific provenance. "This, the most important single work in science, brought man to his true place in nature" (Heralds of Science 199).
31. The Descent of Man (1871)
The issue of human evolution: Human beings descended from animal ancestors
32. Emotions in Animals and Humans (1872)
This book and The Descent set the stage for comparative psychology and provided the theoretical basis for a functional approach to psychology, e.g., the psychology known as functionalism.
33. Darwin’s Influence on Psychology Focus on animal psychology, the basis of comparative psychology
An emphasis on the functions (adaptability) rather than the structure of consciousness
Acceptance of methodology and data from many fields
Focus on the description and measurement of individual differences -- variation
Modified from Schultz and Schultz (2004)
34. Darwin’s Burial at Westminster Abbey
35. Photos of Charles Darwin: 1809-1882