The Influence of Charles Darwin on Psychology

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The Influence of Charles Darwin on Psychology

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1. The Influence of Charles Darwin on Psychology

2. We Start With A Science Lesson

3. What We Too Often Hear “Evolution is not a fact but only a theory”

4. To Believe that Evolution is Not a Fact… Is to argue that all species that exist today have existed from the beginning of time and that species do not change.

5. Evolution is a Fact Scientists do not doubt that evolution has been occurring and is occurring. The debate is about HOW evolution occurs.

7. Darwin’s Grandfather Erasmus Darwin 1731-1802 Zoonomia (1794)

8. Darwin’s Parents

9. Wedgwood Pottery Josiah Wedgwood 1730-1795 Worked in secret in an estimated 10,000 experiments to create the “Jasper ware” that made him famous and wealthy.

10. The Beagle Needs a Naturalist “I have stated that I consider you to be the best qualified person I know who is likely to undertake such a situation – I state this not on the supposition of your being a finished Naturalist, but as simply qualified for collecting, observing, and noting anything worthy to be noted in Natural History… The Voyage is to last 2 years… In short I suppose there never was a finer chance for a man of zeal and spirit.” Henslow to Darwin, August 24, 1831

11. Darwin Has to Decline “As far as my own mind is concerned, I should I think, certainly most gladly have accepted the opportunity, which you so kindly offered me. But my Father, although he does not decidedly refuse me, gives such strong advice against going, that I should not be comfortable if I did not follow it.” Darwin to Henslow, August 30, 1831

12. Darwin’s Father’s Objections “Disreputable to my character as a Clergyman hereafter A wild scheme That they must have offered to many others before me, the place of Naturalist And from it not being accepted there must be some serious objection to the vessel or expedition That I should never settle down to steady life thereafter That my accommodations would be most uncomfortable That you should consider it as again changing my profession That it would be a useless undertaking” Darwin to his father, August 31, 1831

13. Darwin’s Father Changes His Mind “I take the liberty of writing to you according to Mr. Peacock’s desire to acquaint you with my acceptance of the offer of going with Capt Fitzroy. Perhaps you have received a letter from Mr. Peacock, stating my refusal; this was owing to my Father not at first approving of the plan, since which time he has reconsidered the subject & has given his consent & therefore if the appointment is not already filled up, I shall be very happy to have the honor of accepting it.” Darwin to Francis Beaufort, September 1, 1831

14. Fitzroy Interviews Darwin Fitzroy believed in physiognomy and felt that the shape of Darwin’s nose indicated laziness. But in his interview, Darwin impressed Fitzroy and was given the position.

15. Two Years Became Five Years December 1831 – October 1836

16. The Beagle Voyage Geological and Biological Discoveries

17. The Beagle Voyage The age of the earth The geographical distribution of species Extinct species in rock formations suggesting great age The great variations in species

18. The Return Home: 1836 Election to the London Geological Society (1836) Read Malthus’ 1798 essay (1838) Election to the Royal Society (1839) First book – Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, under the Command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N., from 1832 to 1836 (1839)

19. Marriage: 1839

20. The House at Down: 1842

21. Down House

22. Down House

23. Discussions of the “Mystery of Mysteries”

24. A Package in the Mail “Your words have come true with a vengeance – that I should be forestalled… I never saw a more striking coincidence; if Wallace had my MS. sketch written out in 1842, he could not have made a better short abstract!” Darwin to Lyell, June 18, 1858

25. Evolution by Natural Selection Variation Environmental pressures and changes Survival

26. The Origin

27. A Tentative Opening Paragraph “While on board H.M.S. Beagle as naturalist, I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of the organic beings inhabiting South America… These facts … seemed to throw light on the origin of species – that mystery of mysteries…. On my return home, it occurred to me in 1837, that something might perhaps be made out on this question by patiently accumulating and reflecting on all sorts of facts…. After five years’ work I allowed myself to speculate on the subject and drew up some short notes; those I enlarged in 1844 into a sketch of the conclusions, which then seemed to me probable…” Charles Darwin (1859)

28. And the Closing Sentence “There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved.” Charles Darwin (1859)

29. The Origin in 1993

30. The Origin in 2009 On the Origin of Species DARWIN, Charles Bookseller: Bauman Rare Books (Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.) Bookseller Rating: Price: US$ 197,000.00 [Convert Currency] Quantity: 1 Shipping within U.S.A.: US$ 3.50 [Rates & Speeds] Book Description: 1859, 1859. DARWIN, Charles. On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection, Or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle For Life. London: John Murray, 1859. Octavo, original green cloth, uncut. Housed in custom half morocco clamshell box. $197,000. Rare first edition, in original cloth, of "certainly the most important biological book ever written" (Freeman), one of only 1250 copies. A beautiful copy, most scarce in this condition, with fine scientific provenance. "This, the most important single work in science, brought man to his true place in nature" (Heralds of Science 199).

31. The Descent of Man (1871) The issue of human evolution: Human beings descended from animal ancestors

32. Emotions in Animals and Humans (1872) This book and The Descent set the stage for comparative psychology and provided the theoretical basis for a functional approach to psychology, e.g., the psychology known as functionalism.

33. Darwin’s Influence on Psychology Focus on animal psychology, the basis of comparative psychology An emphasis on the functions (adaptability) rather than the structure of consciousness Acceptance of methodology and data from many fields Focus on the description and measurement of individual differences -- variation Modified from Schultz and Schultz (2004)

34. Darwin’s Burial at Westminster Abbey

35. Photos of Charles Darwin: 1809-1882

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