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Learn to write. Chapter I: The Sentence Lecture 1: The basics. The sentence. Sentence sense Basic sentence patterns Classification of sentences Class work. 1. 2. 3. 4. What is a “good”sentence?. There is too much space between “Horse” and “and” and “and” and “Cart”.

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Learn to write

Learn to write

Chapter I: The Sentence

Lecture 1: The basics


The sentence
The sentence

  • Sentence sense

  • Basic sentence patterns

  • Classification of sentences

  • Class work

1

2

3

4

Sentence


What is a good sentence
What is a “good”sentence?

There is too much space between “Horse” and “and” and “and” and “Cart”.

Study the following sentences:

  • There is too much space between Horse and and and and and Cart.

  • He said that that that that that girl used was wrong.

  • If the sentence that had had had had had had, then it would be correct.

He said that that “that” that that girl used was wrong.

If the sentence that had “had” had had “had had”, then it would be correct.

Sentence


What is a good sentence1
What is a “good” sentence?

unity

Study the following sentences:

  • We had a party yesterday, and Carl was ill.

  • Walking along the street, a beautiful spring came into my view.

  • The monkey amused the people in the cages at the zoo.

  • The old man is too weak.

coherence

word order

completeness

Sentence


An effective sentence
An effective sentence

  • Unity

    • We had a party yesterday.

  • Coherence

    • When I was walking along the street, I saw a spring.

  • Goodorder

    • The monkey in the cages amused the people at the zoo.

  • Completeness

    • The oldman is too weak to walk that far.

Sentence


Basic sentence patterns
Basic sentence patterns

Study the following sentences:

  • There was an old church there three years ago.

  • Up went the arrow into the air.

  • Happy is he who dedicates his life to mankind.

  • Terribly hot it certainly was.

  • Not a single word did he say.

  • Nothing would the little boy reply.

predicate

subject

predicative

object

Sentence


Basic sentence patterns1
Basic sentence patterns

Study the following sentences:

  • Stephen apologized.

  • Frank is clever/ an architect.

  • My sister enjoyed the play.

  • The firm gave Sam a watch.

  • They made Sam redundant/ chairman.

  • Joe leaped from the edge of his chair.

  • American education owes a great debt to Thomas Jefferson.

Subject + Verb

Subject + Verb + Predicative

Subject + Verb + Object

Subject + Verb + indirect Object + direct Object

Subject + Verb + Object + Complement

Subject + Verb + Adverbial

Subject + Verb +Object + Adverbial

Sentence


Basic sentence patterns2
Basic sentence patterns

  • Subject + Verb

  • Subject + Verb + Predicative

  • Subject + Verb + Object

  • Subject + Verb + indirect Object + direct Object

  • Subject + Verb + Object + Complement

  • Subject + Verb + Adverbial

  • Subject + Verb + Object + Adverbial

Sentence


Basic sentence patterns elements of sentences
Basic sentence patterns: Elements of sentences

Study the following sentences:

  • Please tell her as soon as you see her.

  • I have not a bench to sit on.

  • They tried to persuade her to go with them.

  • I saw them playing under the big peach tree.

  • Honestly speaking, I don’t like it at all.

adverbial of time

attribute

adverbial of manner

adverbial of place

independent element

adverbial of degree

Sentence


Basic sentence patterns elements of sentences1
Basic sentence patterns: Elements of sentences

subject

predicate verb

Essential elements

the modified

object

appositive

predicative

object complement attribute

adverbial

Independent element

Secondary elements

modifiers

Sentence


Class work 1: Analyze the following sentences.

  • The sailor saw that the ship was sinking.

  • The thought that help was near kept our spirits up.

  • My opinion is that this story is false.

  • His education has made him what he is now.

  • The first thing I’m going to do this evening is to visit my former teacher.

Sentence


Class work 1: Analyze the following sentences.

6. To understand is easier, but to make others understand is not as easier.

7. We came to learn English.

8. The young man sat there, his hands crossed before him.

9. I have no bench to sit on.

10. One should be quick to act.

Sentence


Classification of sentences
Classification of sentences Analyze the following sentences.

  • Paul rides a bicycle to class.

  • Both Mike and Jack like playing baseball.

  • a sentence that consists of a single independent clause; this independent sentence may have a compound subject or a compound predicate.

  • The simple sentence

Sentence


Classification of sentences1
Classification of sentences Analyze the following sentences.

  • Paul rides a bicycle to school when it is fine.

  • The car that Baker bought yesterday cost twenty thousand dollars.

  • a sentence that contains one independent clause (the main clause) and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses

  • The complex sentence

main clause

subordinate clause

Sentence


Classification of sentences2
Classification of sentences Analyze the following sentences.

  • They have put a new traffic light on the corner, but there are still a lot of accidents.

  • Peter watches TV in the evening, and so does his brother.

  • a sentence that contains two or more independent clauses

  • The compound sentence

Sentence


Classification of sentences3
Classification of sentences Analyze the following sentences.

  • Paul rides a bicycle to school when it is fine, but he drives his car when it is rainy.

  • The man who is following the woman is a detective, and he is investigating a drug case now.

  • a sentence that contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate or dependent clause

  • The compound-complex sentence

Sentence


Classification of sentences4
Classification of Sentences Analyze the following sentences.

  • Simple

  • Compound

  • Complex

  • Compound complex

Sentence


Classification of sentences5
Classification of Sentences Analyze the following sentences.

Study the following sentences:

  • He came in, took off his coat and went into the inner room.

  • Tom and John saw Mary and went up to her to tell her the good news.

  • Tom saw Mary and he went up to her to tell her the good news.

  • He waited and waited but nothing happened.

simple

simple

compound

compound

Sentence


Classification of sentences6
Classification of Sentences Analyze the following sentences.

  • When they saw her, they went up to her.

  • Seeing her, they went up to her.

  • They waited for quite some time, and they went up to her as soon as they saw her.

  • She likes to watch ants carrying food to their little home.

  • Please tell me how to do it.

complex

simple

compound complex

simple

simple

Sentence


Sentence transformation
Sentence transformation Analyze the following sentences.

a simple sentence a compound one

  • In spite of his great success, he is not satisfied.

  • She cleaned the windows and then she washed the floor.

  • He has made great success, but he is not satisfied.

  • After cleaning the windows, she washed the floor.

Sentence


Sentence transformation1
Sentence transformation Analyze the following sentences.

a complex sentence a simple one

  • His wish is to become a teacher.

  • What he spoke at the meeting was encouraging.

  • His wish is that he would become a teacher..

  • His speech at the meeting was encouraging.

Sentence


Sentence transformation2
Sentence transformation Analyze the following sentences.

a complex sentence a compound one

  • He is old, but he works as a young man.

  • Since you insist, I must go.

  • Old as he is, he works as a young man.

  • You insist so I must go.

Sentence


Class work 2
Class work 2 Analyze the following sentences.

  • Combine the following two sentences at least in five different ways. We’ll see which pair can work out the most.

  • His wallet was stolen.

  • He didn’t have enough money to buy the book.

Sentence


Class work 3 improve the following sentences
Class work 3: Improve the following sentences.

  • Having no job and poor, the student had to drop out of school.

  • With the computer, one can do shopping, banking and read at home.

  • What do the rich people know about disease, those who are hungry, and poverty?

Jobless and poor,

reading

those who are sick, hungry and poor

Sentence


Class work 3: Improve the following sentences.

4. Narrow streets easily cause to happen many traffic accidents.

5. But it may occur some new problems.

6. Green trees can protect our air from polluting.

7. Opportunities are only belonged to those who work hard.

may occur

being polluted

Sentence


Class work 3: Improve the following sentences.

8. In 1990 the consumption of grain has decreased by 20%.

9. Many students liked the lecture system because it helps them to learn quickly.

10. If there were no electrical power, we can imagine what will happen.

like

would

We can imagine what would happen if therewere no electrical power.

Sentence


An effective sentence1
An effective sentence Improve the following sentences.

  • Unity

  • Coherence

  • Goodorder

  • Completeness

Sentence


Basic sentence patterns3
Basic sentence patterns Improve the following sentences.

  • Subject + Verb

  • Subject + Verb + Complement

  • Subject + Verb + direct Object

  • Subject + Verb + indirect Object + direct Object

  • Subject + Verb + Object + Complement

  • Subject + Verb + Adverbial

  • Subject + Verb + Object + Adverbial

Sentence


Classification of sentences7
Classification of Sentences Improve the following sentences.

  • Simple

  • Compound

  • Complex

  • Compound complex

Sentence


Homework
Homework Improve the following sentences.

  • Read it:《奠基篇》pp19-23.

  • 《奠基篇》Unit1,Part IV pp61-62.

  • Write an essay around 120 words entitled “ I got a lot from my high school”

  • Warning: delayed work will not be accepted

Sentence


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