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Learn to write. Chapter I: The Sentence Lecture 2: Dos and don’ts. The sentence - Dos and don’ts. Definitions reviewed Punctuation patterns Common errors to avoid Class work. 1. 2. 3. 4. Definitions reviewed. Independent Clause ( IC )

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Learn to write

Learn to write

Chapter I: The Sentence

Lecture 2: Dos and don’ts

Sentence


The sentence dos and don ts

The sentence - Dos and don’ts

  • Definitions reviewed

  • Punctuation patterns

  • Common errors to avoid

  • Class work

1

2

3

4

Sentence


Definitions reviewed

Definitions reviewed

  • Independent Clause (IC)

  • Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz.

  • Dependent Clause (DC)

  • When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, . . .

  • Dependent Marker (DM) - Subordinating Conjunction

Sentence


Some dependent marker word dm

Some Dependent Marker Word (DM)

  • Time: when, whenever, while, once, before, after, since, until, as long as, as soon as

  • Place: where, wherever

  • Degree: inasmuch as, insofar as, to the extent that

  • Cause: because, since, as

  • Contrast: although, even though, while

  • Condition: if, when, provided that, in case, assuming that, as long as

  • Negative Condition: unless

  • Alternative Condition: whether or not

Sentence


Definitions reviewed1

Definitions reviewed

  • 1. Coordinating Conjunction (CC)

  • and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. (7)

  • 2. Independent Marker (IM)

  • e.g. also, consequently, furthermore, however, moreover, nevertheless, therefore

  • Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, but it was hard to concentrate because of the noise / ; however, it was hard to concentrate because of the noise.

, but

; however

Sentence


Punctuation patterns simple sentence

Punctuation patterns – simple sentence

  • Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma (哮喘).

  • Many doctors, including both pediatricians (儿科医师) and family practice physicians, are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma.

Independent clause (IC).

First part of an IC ,

non-essential clause or phrase,

rest of the IC.

Sentence


Punctuation patterns compound sentence

Punctuation patterns – compound sentence

  • Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma, but they don't know the reasons for it.

  • Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma; they are unsure of its cause.

  • Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma; therefore, they have called for more research into its causes.

IC ,

coordinating conjunction (CC)

IC.

IC ; IC.

IC ; independent marker (IM) , IC

Sentence


Punctuation patterns complex sentence

Punctuation patterns – complex sentence

  • Because doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma, they have called for more research into its causes.

  • Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma because it is a common, treatable illness.

  • Many doctors who are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma have called for more research into its causes.

Dependent marker (DM)

dependent clause (DC) ,

IC.

IC + DM + DC.

First part of an IC

essential clause or phrase

rest of the IC.

Sentence


Essential vs non essential

essential vs non-essential

  • Many doctors who are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma have called for more research into its causes.

  • Many doctors,including both pediatricians (儿科医师) and family practice physicians, are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma.

Sentence


Punctuation patterns summary

Punctuation patterns – summary

  • IC.

  • First part of an IC , non-essential clause or phrase , rest of the IC.

  • IC , CC + IC.

  • IC ; IC (: / –)

  • IC ; IM , IC

  • DM + DC , IC

  • IC+DM+DC

  • First part of an IC + essential clause or phrase + rest of the IC.

IC.

IC; IC.

IC, CC IC.

IC; IM, IC.

DC, IC.

IC DC.

Sentence


Common errors to avoid

Common errors to avoid

  • Comma splices

  • Run-on sentences

  • Fragments

  • Dangling modifiers

  • Parallel structure

1

2

3

4

5

Sentence


1 comma splices

1. Comma splices

  • I like this class, it is very interesting.

  • I like this class.It is very interesting.

  • I like this class;it is very interesting. (: / – )

  • I like this class, and it is very interesting.

  • I like this class because it is very interesting.

  • Because it is very interesting, I like this class.

Sentence


2 run on sentences

2. Run-on sentences

  • My professor is intelligent I've learned a lot from her.

  • My professor is intelligent. I've learned a lot from her.

  • My professor is intelligent; I've learned a lot from her.

  • My professor is intelligent, and I've learned a lot from her.

  • My professor is intelligent; moreover, I've learned a lot from her.

  • My professor is intelligent, from whom I’ve learned a lot.

Sentence


3 fragments

3. Fragments

  • Because I forgot the exam was today.

  • Because I forgot the exam was today, I didn't study.

  • I forgot the exam was today.

  • Toys of all kinds thrown everywhere.

  • Toys of all kinds were thrown everywhere.

  • With the ultimate effect of all advertising is to sell the product.

DC

No main verb

No subject

Mixed construction

Sentence


Mixed construction

Mixed construction:

(1) People who had bad backs, doctors advise them to sleep on a hard mattress.

(2) In my class there is a girl sings beautifully.

(3) My father’s job is a technician.

(4) Competition is great for the well-paid professions, such as doctors and lawyers.

Sentence


4 dangling modifiers

4. Dangling modifiers

  • Having arrived late for practice, a written excuse was needed.

  • ..., the captain of the team needed a written excuse.

  • Without knowing his name, it was difficult to introduce him.

  • Because Maria didn’t know his name,...

  • To improve his result, the experiment was done again.

  • He improved his results by doing the experiment again.

Sentence


5 parallel structure words phrases

5. Parallel structure - Words & phrases

  • Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ridea bicycle.

  • Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.

  • Mary likes to hike,to swim, and to ride a bicycle.

  • Mary likesto hike, swim, and ride a bicycle.

Sentence


5 parallel structure words phrases1

5. Parallel structure - Words & phrases

  • The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and in a detailed manner.

  • The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waiteduntil the last minute to study for the exam, completedhis lab problems in a careless manner, and his motivation waslow.

thoroughly

lackedmotivation.

Sentence


5 parallel structure clauses

5. Parallel structure - clauses

  • The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to dosome warm-up exercises before the game.

  • ... that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises ...

  • ... that they should geta lot of sleep, not eattoo much, and dosome warm-up exercises ...

Sentence


5 parallel structure clauses1

5. Parallel structure - clauses

  • The salesman expected that he would presenthis product at the meeting, that there would betime for him to show his slide presentation, and thatquestions would be askedby prospective (未来的) buyers.

  • ... that he would presenthis product at the meeting, that there would betime for him to show his slide presentation, and that prospective buyers would askhim questions.

Sentence


5 parallel structure lists after a colon

5. Parallel structure - Lists after a colon

  • Be sure to keep all the elements in a list in the same form.

  • The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correctspellings, and looking up irregular verbs.

  • ... for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings,and irregular verbs.

Sentence


Class work 1 identifying sentence problems

Class work 1 Identifying Sentence Problems

  • 1. By the time Julia Roberts was 23, she had won two academy award nominations (提名), she had also become the world's most popular female actress.

  • comma splice

Sentence


Class work 1 identifying sentence problems1

Class work 1 Identifying Sentence Problems

  • 2. Since then, Roberts has appeared in fourteen films. Most recently, "My Best Friend's Wedding" and "The Conspiracy (阴谋)Theory.“

  • fragment

Sentence


Class work 1 identifying sentence problems2

Class work 1 Identifying Sentence Problems

  • 3. She didn't plan to become an actress. She wanted to be six feet tall. She wanted to be a veterinarian (兽医). She wanted to be happy and make others happy.

  • 4. Although Julia Roberts has had much professional success. Her personal life has been troubled with several failed relationships.

  • fragment

Choppy 结构拙劣的

Sentence


Class work 1 identifying sentence problems3

Class work 1 Identifying Sentence Problems

  • 5. Julia Roberts lives in Manhattan, not far from the apartment she once shared with her sister in Greenwich Village.

  • 6. She came to New York when she was seventeen. Because her older sister lived there and she was influenced by her sister.

  • fragment

Sentence


Class work 1 identifying sentence problems4

Class work 1 Identifying Sentence Problems

  • 7. Roberts was raised in Georgia. Her parents ran a theater school there. Her sister and brother are also actors. The family was always short of money.

  • 8. When Julia was four years old, her parents divorced. After eighteen years of marriage

  • 9. Julia and her sister lived with their mother. Their brother stayed with their father. Who died of cancer five years later.

Choppy

fragment

fragment

Sentence


Class work 1 identifying sentence problems5

Class work 1 Identifying Sentence Problems

  • 10. In high school, Julia found class work boring, she didn't know how to be a good student.

  • comma splice

  • 11. After she graduated from high school, Julia worked in a shoe store while auditioning (试演) for acting jobs. Though didn't get hired for a year.

  • fragment

Sentence


Class work 1 identifying sentence problems6

Class work 1 Identifying Sentence Problems

  • 12. In 1990, "Pretty Woman" became a smash hit (非常流行的东西) her natural gift for this type of comedy brought her a nomination for Best Actress.

  • run-on sentence

  • 13. Julia Roberts was engaged to Keifer Sutherland in 1991. Three days before the wedding, she changed her mind and canceled everything.

Sentence


Class work 1 identifying sentence problems7

Class work 1 Identifying Sentence Problems

  • 14. The singer-actor Lyle Lovett is ten years older than Julia she married him in 1993 but split up after less than two years.

  • run-on sentence

  • 15. "Stepmom" is Julia Robert's new movie. It is a family drama. It co-stars Susan Sarandon. Ed Harris is also a co-star.

  • choppy

Sentence


Class work 1 identifying sentence problems8

Class work 1 Identifying Sentence Problems

  • 16. Currently, Julia is dating Benjamin Bratt. Who plays a detective on the TV series, "Law and Order.“

  • fragment

  • 17. Roberts says that she enjoys getting older and is content with her life experiences.

Sentence


Learn to write

Class work 2:

Improve the following sentences:

  • Sometimes teachers will inform students of the heavy burden they have to bear.

  • Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.

  • I may go to labor service center or read it from the newspaper.

teachers

my sister

information

Sentence


Learn to write

Class work 2:

Improve the following sentences:

  • Whether one enjoys or resents advertisements, we are actually bombarded with them every hour of the day.

  • The eating habit of Chinese people have changed dramatically in the past decade.

  • There are so many countries using English that it had been regarded as an international language.

one is / he is

has

is

Sentence


Learn to write

Class work 2:

Improve the following sentences:

  • We should study as much knowledge as possible so that we can be fully prepared for the future.

  • In the past the price of milk was so expensive that most families could not afford it.

  • The speed of the new car is much faster than that of the old one.

get / acquire / gain

high

higher

Sentence


Learn to write

Class work 2:

Improve the following sentences:

  • In recent one or two years, people who take TOFEL have decreased.

  • Your composition is well-written except for some small errors.

  • Open your computer and you will know everything going on in the world.

the number of people

minor

turn on

Sentence


Learn to write

Class work 2:

Improve the following sentences:

  • In my opinion, I believe that the present medical system is in need of reform.

  • People are trying to find a solution to solve the problem.

  • For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need.

或:I believe that the present medical system…

( illogical )

Sentence


Learn to write

Class work 2:

Improve the following sentences:

people

  • With the increasing number of population and factories, the need for fresh water is growing rapidly.

  • Because of the reason that he didn’t study hard enough, he did not do well on the test and failed it.

( collocation )

Sentence


Learn to write

not

Class work 2:

Improve the following sentences:

  • The chief reasons for the change have five points.

  • Taking part in sports and games will give us a good body.

  • If a student only has knowledge of natural science, he will become a one-legged man when he comes out of university.

There are five reasons for….

make us healthy

well-rounded

graduates from

Sentence


Learn to write

Class work 2:

Improve the following sentences:

21. The methods of getting to know the society outside the campus are very many.

22. Although everyone is equal to an opportunity, but not everyone can seize it.

23. Knowing potential effect of eating fat meat, people now choose to eat thin meat.

There are many methods of….

yet / still / however / nevertheless

fatty

lean

Sentence


Learn to write

to the countryside

Class work 2:

Improve the following sentences:

  • To keep the air clean, we must move the factories which give off poisonous gases to the countryside.

  • Without television, people can’t get information which comes from other parts of the world immediately.

move… to…

give off … to…

get sth. immediately

Sentence


Learn to write

Class work 2:

Improve the following sentences:

  • My friend is a handsome man; he has a wide forehead, a straight nose and long brown hair with glasses.

  • 27. Being made of stone, the builder expected the house to stand for a century.

long brown hair, a wide forehead and a straight nose with glasses

the house is

Sentence


Homework

Homework

  • Read it:《奠基篇》p.23-26.

  • 《奠基篇》 p.76-79. Unit2, Part IV

  • Write an essay which should contain at least 10 new words (or phrases) you’ve learned in Unit 1, Text A (综合教程). Make sure to circle the new words you contained in your essay.

  • Warning: delayed work will not be accepted

Sentence


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