Food production systems
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Food Production Systems. ERT 426 Food Engineering Semester 1 Academic Session 2014/15. Subtopics. Food safety Food processing control Management of quality and food safety HACCP TQM ISO 22000. 1. Food Safety.

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Food production systems

Food Production Systems

ERT 426 Food Engineering

Semester 1 Academic Session 2014/15



  • Food safety

  • Food processing control

  • Management of quality and food safety


  • TQM

  • ISO 22000

1 food safety

1. Food Safety

  • Ensuring food safety is the responsibility of all links in the food chain, including consumers, and important others, such as the government (via legislation, health services, educational system) as well as the food and media industries.

Food safety

Food Safety

  • Shared responsibility for food safety.

2 food processing control

2. Food processing control

  • A requirement of all food processing is to ensure that products are safe for consumption, and previously quality control systems were based on the inspection of ingredients and end-product testing, with rejection of any batches that did not meet agreed standards.

  • This reactive approach was then recognised to be a waste of resources.

  • money has already been spent on producing the food by the time it is tested and rejection means a financial loss.

Food processing control

Food processing control

  • A more proactive preventative approach to food safety and quality management, termed `quality assurance' was developed during the 1980s, based on the principles of good manufacturing practice (GMP).

  • It aimed to ensure that quality and safety are maintained throughout a process and thus prevent product rejection and financial losses.

3 management of quality and food safety

3. Management of quality and food safety

  • Factors:

  • Commercial pressures including increasing competition between companies, and the need to conform to international quality legislation in order to access expanding national and international food markets.

  • Product quality management systems required by major retailers.

  • A major shift in emphasis from national legislation to international legislation occurred in 1994.

Management of quality and food safety haccp

Management of quality and food safety (HACCP)

  • when a GATT agreement recommended acceptance of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles, developed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, as the required standard for free international movement of food.

4 haccp


  • A Hazard analysis is the identification of potentially hazardous ingredients, storage conditions, packaging, critical process points and relevant human factors which may affect product safety or quality.

  • HACCP enables potential hazards in a process to be identified, assessed, and controlled or eliminated.

  • Potential hazards include pathogenic micro-organisms and toxic chemicals (e.g. aflatoxins), or physical contaminants that could cause harm to consumers.



  • A HACCP plan sets tolerances for hazards and defines appropriate control measures, the frequency of their application, sampling procedures, specific tests to be used and the criteria for product acceptance.

  • The system is based on monitoring of `critical control points' (CCPs)

  • Processing factors (CCPs) of which a loss of control would result in an unacceptable food safety or quality risk

  • The action to be taken when results of monitoring are outside the pre-set limits



  • Implementation of a HACCP scheme involves the following stages:

  • Identify the essential characteristics of the product and its use and define the hazards or potential hazards that could threaten the consumer.

  • Identify critical stages (CCPs) required to control identified hazards to ensure safety.

  • Devise target levels and critical limits for each CCP.



  • Establish effective procedures to monitor the CCPs.

  • Establish corrective actions that are needed when there is a deviation from a CCP.

  • Establish procedures to verify that the HACCP system is working correctly.

  • Establish record-keeping systems that fully document the HACCP system and the procedures needed to review it.

5 total quality management tqm

5. Total Quality Management (TQM)

  • The requirement for effective food monitoring and control systems to control resources and ensure that safe, high quality products were consistently manufactured led to the concept of total quality management (TQM).

  • The aim of TQM is to define and understand all aspects of a process, to implement controls, monitor performance and measure improvements.

Total quality management tqm

Total Quality Management (TQM)

  • A TQM system covers the following areas:

  • Raw materials, purchasing and control.

  • Process control

  • Premises (+ maintenance, waste disposal)

  • Quality control

  • Personnel (+ training, personal hygiene, clothing and medical screening).

  • Final product

  • Distribution (+ product integrity throughout the chain, batch traceability & product recall systems)

6 iso 22 000

6.ISO 22 000

  • The international standard for food safety management systems (ISO 22 000) was developed from an earlier standard (ISO 9001) in 2005.

  • Food safety hazards can be introduced at any stage of the food chain, from ingredient supplies by primary producers, through food manufacturers, transport and storage operators, to retail and food service outlets.

  • Adequate control is therefore needed throughout the food chain by the combined efforts of all who participate.

Iso 22 000

ISO 22 000

  • ISO 22 000 specifies the requirements for a food safety management system:

  • Interactive communication with customers and suppliers to ensure that all relevant food safety hazards are identified and adequately controlled at each step within the food chain.

  • System management to ensure that effective food safety systems are established, operated and updated within the framework of a structured management system and incorporated into the overall management activities of the company.

Iso 22 0001

ISO 22 000

  • Combined prerequisite programmes (PRPs), operational PRPs and HACCP principles.

  • PRPs include GMP, good hygiene practice (GHP), good production practice (GPP) and good distribution practice (GDP).

Iso 22 0002

ISO 22 000

  • The standard takes into account:

  • new product development,

  • raw materials and ingredient supplies,

  • production facilities and operations,

  • environmental and waste management,

  • health and safety in the working environment,

  • validation and verification of the food quality and safety systems.

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