Food production systems
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Food Production Systems. Darlene Oehlke. Types of Food Production Systems. Extensive Commercial Farming Intensive Commercial Farming Subsistence farming Shifting Cultivation (Tavy) (Slash and burn in the tropics) Fisheries. Extensive Commercial Farming.

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Food production systems

Food Production Systems

Darlene Oehlke


Types of food production systems

Types of Food Production Systems

  • Extensive Commercial Farming

  • Intensive Commercial Farming

  • Subsistence farming

  • Shifting Cultivation (Tavy) (Slash and burn in the tropics)

  • Fisheries


Extensive commercial farming

Extensive Commercial Farming

  • Large areas of land produce a lot of food per farmer, but the output per acre is lower than with intensive methods.


Extensive commercial farming1

Extensive Commercial Farming

  • Crop Yields are maximized for profit


Extensive commercial farming2

Extensive Commercial Farming

  • High fossil fuel input

  • High Mechanization

  • Modern Technology

  • Water from irrigation

  • Commercial fertilizers

  • Chemical pesticides to kill insects

  • Chemical herbicides to kill weeds

  • Low human labor input

  • High capital input

  • GM crops or selectively breed seeds


Outputs from extensive commercial farming

Outputs from Extensive Commercial farming

  • Large amounts of food per farm

  • Grassland diversity lost

  • Habitat for animals lost

  • Soil degradation in many cases

  • Pollution from fertilizer runoff

  • Pollution from pesticides and herbicides

  • Water waste from irrigation

  • Pollution from fossil fuels

  • Soil Compaction from heavy machinery use


Intensive commercial farming

Intensive Commercial Farming

  • High labor input

  • High technology

  • High capital input

  • High energy input

  • High fertilizer input

  • Chemical pesticides and fertilizer

  • Mechanization


Intensive commercial farming1

Intensive Commercial Farming

Outputs:

High crop yields

from intense land use

High Energy Efficiency

Example:

Western Netherlands

greenhouses and dairy


Subsistence farming

Subsistence Farming

  • Subsistence farming - only feeds one family in LEDC’s

  • Small plots of land

  • Wide range of animals and plants

  • Polycultures – a mix of crops

  • High human labor input

  • Low capital input

  • Vulnerable to food shortages


Subsistence farming1

Subsistence Farming

  • www.untotheleast.com

  • home.jeffandsue.org

  • bamboovillagepress.blogspot.com

High human labor input


Subsistence farming crops are grown to feed a family

Subsistence Farming: Crops are grown to feed a family

  • Intense labor input: The whole family helps

  • Sometimes marginally productive land is used

  • Polycultures are common: many different plants and a variety of animals

  • If the crop fails, food shortages result.


Extensive subsistence farming

Extensive Subsistence Farming

  • Slash and burn

  • High Land input

  • Soil degradation

  • Low capital input (axes)

  • Low labor input

  • Fragile soil degrades if it cannot rest


Slash and burn in brazil

Slash and burn in Brazil

  • Low output - feeds the family

    - www.pbs.org


Slash and burn

Slash and burn

  • If done on a small scale, the forest grows back in 20 years. Increasing human population causes more pressure on the land.


Environmental concern soil degradation

Environmental concern: Soil degradation.


Intensive subsistence farming

Intensive Subsistence Farming

  • High yield per acre

  • High efficiency

  • Low environmental impact

  • Intensive human labor

  • High quality seeds and fertilizers


Intensive subsistence farming1

Intensive Subsistence farming


Nomadic herding in lecd s

Nomadic Herding in LECD’s

  • High land input

  • Animals graze a large area

  • Low labor input - herding

  • Low capital input

  • This is an example of Extensive Subsistence Food Production


Nomadic herder water buffalo india

Nomadic HerderWater BuffaloIndia


Masai herdsmen kenya africa

Masai herdsmenKenya, Africa


More about the masai kenyan drought adds to woes shrinking land growing population bbc news

More about the Masai:Kenyan drought adds to woes… Shrinking land, growing population -BBC news

  • Subsistence farming is subject to food shortages


Overfishing the stock cannot breed fast enough

Overfishing: The stock cannot breed fast enough


Aquaculture commercial fish farming

Aquaculture: Commercial Fish farming


Aquaculture

Aquaculture

  • Inputs: Fish, food, antibiotics, chemicals to treat fish disease

  • Output: Fish!

  • Concerns: High populations of fish in a small area

  • Pollution from fish waste, antibiotics fed to fish

  • Escaping fish


Rice fish farming

Rice fish farming


Rice fish farming1

Rice fish farming

  • China has been doing this for 1700 years

  • Deep water rice and Oujiang red carp are raised together

  • Low input (less fertilizer and pesticide use)

  • Low cost technology

  • Fish fertilize the rice

  • The fish also offer biological control of pests, including an invasive snail

    • FAO


Food production systems

  • Rice Fish farming in Vietnam

  • The fish eat small snail pests

    - FAO


Polyculture of a traditional rice fish farm

Polyculture of a traditional rice fish farm


Towards sustainable agriculture

Towards sustainable agriculture

  • Human labor and simple tools do not use fossil fuels

  • Crop yields are higher when the farming is intensive


Soil conservation measures

Soil Conservation Measures

  • Add lime to increase pH

  • Add organic materials like compost

  • Reduce the wind: wind breaks, strip cultivation and shelter belts

  • Terrace to avoid erosion

  • Contour plowing

  • Avoidance of plowing marginal lands


Alternatives to chemical fertilizers

Alternatives to chemical fertilizers

  • Growing of highly productive, nitrogen and biomass crop

  • aerobic compost piles

  • re-introducing micro-nutrients by importing locally generated food waste


Alternatives to chemical herbicide and pesticides

Alternatives to chemical herbicide and pesticides

  • Biological control - Using natural predators

  • Crop rotation

  • Polyculture


Bibliography

Bibliography

  • www.energyfarms.net

  • www.fao.org


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