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Exam 1. A week from Tuesday (Tue 16 Oct) 6-8pm in Chemistry ( not in Psych auditorium) Meredith’s sections in 1400 Chemistry Everyone else in 1800 Chemistry Will cover: Lectures 1-9 (up to and including this Thu) Textbook: Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7

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Exam 1

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Exam 1

  • A week from Tuesday (Tue 16 Oct)

    • 6-8pm in Chemistry (not in Psych auditorium)

    • Meredith’s sections in 1400 Chemistry

    • Everyone else in 1800 Chemistry

  • Will cover:

    • Lectures 1-9 (up to and including this Thu)

    • Textbook: Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7

    • Articles: Kohler, Sacks, McCloskey, Kosslyn

  • Review sheet is posted on coursetools (look under Resources)


Observer Perspective

  • Another distortion in visuospatial processing

  • People tend to subjectively stretch area around them and shrink other areas

  • Report distance from familiar place to unfamiliar place to be longer than reverse

  • E.g., Perspective from NYC


Visual Imagery


Lecture Outline

Issues:(a) Perception vs. imagery(b) Depictive vs. propositional code(c) Compromise theory

1. Perception and imagery

1.1. Depictive and propositional codes

1.2. Imagery phenomena: scanning, zooming, transforming

2. Theory of mental imagery

2.1. Differences between imagery & perception

2.2. Compromise theory


Propositional vs. Depictive

  • Propositional

    • The globe is on the desk

    • ON (GLOBE, DESK)

  • Depictive


has

white hair

George Washington

has

has

wooden teeth

thin lips

Propositional vs. Depictive

  • Issue: Is the representation that underlies imagery propositional or depictive?

    Propositional:

    Depictive:


Auditory Detection Visual Detection

Auditory imagery

Visual imagery

Interference

(None)

Interference

(None)

Interference effects

Perform two tasks simultaneously, if they interfere then they must require the same mental system.


Kosslyn: Image Scanning


Kosslyn: Image Scanning


Demand Characteristics?

  • Perhaps subjects think you want them to act like they’re scanning an image, so they act that way

    • Subjects infer the experimenter’s implicit demands

  • Or perhaps experimenters expect a certain set of results and this biases results

  • But get similar results when experimenters and subjects told that theory predicts scanning short distances takes longer


Image Zooming

Far Near


Mental Rotation


Mental Rotation


Mental Rotation


Mental Rotation


Mental Rotation

127°

90°

45°

Comparison


Intermediate Rotations


Imagery isn’t just like perception

  • Perception has metric qualities that images don’t

  • Example: Bisected rectangle with diagonal lines


1"

A

B1

1"

B2

Metric Qualities of Perception


Part-Whole Relationships

  • Quickly glance at this Star of David then look away


Part-Whole Relationships

  • Using imagery: Did it contain a parallelogram?


Part-Whole Relationships

  • Using perception: Does it contain a parallelogram?


Part-Whole Relationships

  • Using perception: Does it contain a parallelogram?


A Duck


Ambiguous Figures

  • That figure was actually ambiguous

  • Using imagery: What else could that figure have been?


Ambiguous Figures

  • Using perception: What else could that figure be?


has

George Washington

white hair

has

has

wooden teeth

thin lips

Compromise Theory (Kosslyn)

1 - Basic code is propositional (for long term storage)

2 - Propositional code used to create depictive image

3 - Depictive image can be scanned, zoomed, etc.

generate

image


Dorsal

Parietal Lobe

Dorsal

Visual Cortex

Temporal Lobe

Ventral

Visual Imagery and Cortex


Memorize Grid Letters


Image Complexity


Ordered Image Construction


Ordered Image Construction


Ordered Image Construction


Imagery vs. Motor Control


Lecture Outline

Issues:(a) Perception vs. imagery(b) Depictive vs. propositional code(c) Compromise theory

1. Perception and imagery

1.1. Depictive and propositional codes

1.2. Imagery phenomena: scanning, zooming, transforming

2. Theory of mental imagery

2.1. Differences between imagery & perception

2.2. Compromise theory


Next Time

  • Working Memory

  • Read pp. 181-196 in the textbook

  • Read article by Baddeley


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