What is biology
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What is Biology?. Biology. Book reference pages16-22. Definition: “bio-” = “-logy” = This includes the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution (where they live and how they get around) of living organisms. Anything that is or once was alive is…. LIVING!!!.

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What is biology

What is Biology?


Biology

Biology

Book reference

pages16-22

  • Definition:

    • “bio-” =

    • “-logy” =

    • This includes the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution (where they live and how they get around) of living organisms.


What is biology

Anything that is or once was alive is….

LIVING!!!


5 characteristics of life

5 Characteristics of Life

  • Organization

    • Specialized for a purpose

    • Ex. Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems

    • The cell is the smallest unit capable of life function


5 characteristics of life1

5 Characteristics of Life

  • Reproduction

    • Asexually vs. Sexually

    • Within a species


5 characteristics of life2

5 Characteristics of Life

  • Energy

    • Light, nutrients

    • ATP – adenosine triphosphate: a molecule in muscle tissue that is the major source of energy for cellular reactions


5 characteristics of life3

5 Characteristics of Life

  • Growth & Development

    • Change in size

    • Change in shape/form


5 characteristics of life4

5 Characteristics of Life

  • Response and Adaptation

    • Response to an environmental stimulus

    • Adaptation is change in a population of same organisms in response to changes in the environment


Origin of life 2 theories

Origin of Life - 2 Theories

  • Spontaneous Generation

    • Life from non-life (since at least 4 BC)

    • FranscescoRedi’s experiment (1668)

    • Louis Pasteur experiment (1864)

  • Biogenesis

    • “bio-” =

    • “-genesis” =

    • Life comes from life

    • Reproduction occurs within the same species


What is biology

Redi’s Experiment


Origin of life 2 theories1

Origin of Life - 2 Theories

  • Spontaneous Generation

    • Life from non-life (since at least 4 BC)

    • Franscesco Redi’s experiment (1668)

    • Louis Pasteur experiment (1864)

  • Biogenesis

    • “bio-” =

    • “-genesis” =

    • Life comes from life

    • Reproduction occurs within the same species


What is biology

P

H

E

O

C

Problem

Hypothesis

Experiment

Safety

Materials

Procedure

Data

Observation

Conclusion


Problem hypothesis

Problem & Hypothesis

Observation: I have a headache.

P: How do I get rid of my head ache?

H: If I…

Observation: My car won’t start.

P: Why won’t my car start?

H:

Observation: Plants seem to grow towards the window.

P: Do plants grow towards artificial light?

H:


Terms

Terms

Variable = factor that changes in an experiment

You should only test ONE variable in an experiment!! Why?

Experimental Group = factor being tested

Control Group = “normal” condition or condition that you are comparing against

Constants = conditions that remain the same between experimental group and control group

Independent Variable = It’s the variable “I control”

Dependent Variable = effect caused by changes in the independent variable, what you observe


Example

Example

Problem:

How does excess fertilizer affect the growth of of a houseplant

Hypothesis:

If excess fertilizer is added then the plant will grow taller

Variable =

Experimental Group =

Control Group =

Constants =

Independent Variable =

Dependent Variable =


What is biology

Data


10 levels of organization

10 Levels of Organization

  • Cell

    • Basic unit of living things

  • Tissue

    • Made up of cells working together for the same function

  • Organ

    • Made up of tissues working together for the same function


10 levels of organization1

10 Levels of Organization

  • Organ System

    • Made up of organs working together for the same function

  • Organism

    • All living things

  • Population

    • A group of organisms of the same species

    • Ex. Turtles in a pond


10 levels of organization2

10 Levels of Organization

  • Community

    • All populations living/working together

    • Biotic

  • Ecosystem

    • Living and non-living parts of a community

    • Biotic and abiotic


10 levels of organization3

10 Levels of Organization

  • Biome

    • A large group of similar ecosystems, determined by climate

  • Biosphere

    • Thin layer of air, land and water that is home to living things


Chemistry of life

Chemistry of Life

  • Atom = smallest particle of an element

    • proton

    • neutron

    • electron

    • isotope

      • form of the element with different amount of neutrons; usually unstable and radioactive


Chemistry of life1

Chemistry of Life

  • atomic mass:

    • average mass of an atom of an element - sum of protons and neutrons in nucleus

  • atomic number:

    • proton number

  • symbol:

    • one or two letters used internationally


Chemistry of life2

Chemistry of Life

  • Periodic Table


Model of an atom

Model of an Atom


Chemistry of life3

Chemistry of Life

  • Bohr Model vs. Electron Cloud Model


Chemistry of life4

Chemistry of Life

  • Bonding = energy is exchanged when bonds break/form

    • ex. Na+ Cl- NaCl

    • ex. H2O

  • Molecule – two or more atoms

  • Compound – molecule of two or more elements


Properties of h2o

Properties of H2O

  • Cohesion

  • Adhesion

  • Surface tension

  • Capillary action


Chemistry of life5

Chemistry of Life

Water strider


Chemistry of life6

Chemistry of Life

Green Basilisk Lizard


Organic compounds

Organic Compounds

  • Organic compounds contain carbon

    • Ex. Carbon skeleton

    • Monomer

      • “one” unit

    • Dimer

      • “two” units

    • Polymer

      • “many” units


4 compounds found in living things

4 Compounds Found in Living Things

  • Carbohydrates

  • Protein

  • Lipid

  • Nucleic Acid


4 compounds found in living things1

4 Compounds Found in Living Things

  • Carbohydrates

    • Starch (Iodine Test)

    • Sugar (Benedict’s Test)

    • Cellulose

  • Protein

    • Nitric Acid Test

  • Lipid

    • Smear test

  • Nucleic Acid


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • Starch (Iodine Test)

    • Long lasting energy

    • ex. Potato, pasta

  • Sugar (Benedict’s Test)

    • Short term energy

    • ex. Candy, glucose

  • Cellulose

    • Gives structure

    • Found in plants


Protein nitric acid test

Protein (Nitric Acid Test)

  • Polymers of amino acids (20)

  • Provide structure (muscles, skin)

    • ex. Eggs, meat


Lipids smear test

Lipids (Smear Test)

  • Fat

    • Insulation

    • Long lasting energy

  • Waxes

    • Waterproofing

    • Water storage

  • Steroids

    • Growth & development

  • Phospholipid

    • Cell membrane


Nucleic acid

Nucleic Acid

  • DNA

    • Genetic code

  • RNA

    • Makes proteins


Chemical reaction

Chemical Reaction

  • Process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals

  • Ex. CO2 + H2O  H2CO3

    H2O2  H2O + O2


Energy

Energy

  • Bonds broken/formed

  • Activation Energy

    • Energy to get a reaction started

    • Energy absorbed (endergonic) vs. Energy released (exergonic)


What is biology

Endergonic reaction requires energy to start reaction and absorbs the energy

If you touched a beaker in which an endergonic reaction was occurring, what would you feel?


What is biology

Exergonicreaction needs a small amount of energy to start but releases energy as part of the reaction

If you touched a beaker in which an endergonic reaction was occurring, what would you feel?


What is biology

Endergonic reaction requires energy to start reaction and absorbs the energy

Exergonic reaction needs a small amount of energy to start but releases energy as part of the reaction


Enzymes

Enzymes

  • Proteins that act as catalysts

    • Catalyst = speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

  • Lower activation energy


What is biology

Enzyme lowers the activation energy:

EA = activation energy


Enzymes1

Enzymes

  • Enzymes provide a site where reactants can be brought together to react

  • Substrate = the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions


Enzymes2

Enzymes

  • Lock-and-Key Fit

  • Active Site


Enzymes3

Enzymes

  • Enzyme is not used up in reaction, can start again after product is released

  • Things That Affect Enzymes

    • pH (how acid or basic the environment is)

    • Temperature (hot vs. cold)

    • What is the optimal condition for enzymes in the human body?


Review

Review

  • What are the 4 compounds that make up living things?

  • What do they all have in common?

  • What are the three types of carbohydrates?

  • How are they related?

  • What is a protein made up of?

  • How do the 20 amino acids compare to the 26 letters in the alphabet?

  • How are lipids beneficial?


Review1

Review

  • Where are lipids found in living things?

  • What are nucleic acids?

  • What role do they play in living things?

  • What foods contain carbohydrates?

  • What foods contain lipids?

  • What foods contain proteins?

  • Where are proteins found in our bodies?


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