Biology End of Course Test (EOCT) Study Guide. Venecia R Stewart, Ed.S . Honors & General Biology Teacher Campbell High School. C haracteristics of L iving T hings. Made of one or more cells Unicellular-made of one cell Multicellular-made of more than one cell
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Venecia R Stewart, Ed.S.
Honors & General Biology Teacher
Campbell High School
Commensalism—when one organism benefits from a relationship, and the other is not helped or harmed. Example—bird living in a tree.
Example-barnacles on a whale.
The bottom of the energy pyramid is the plants/producers which are autotrophs. As you move up the food chain, you have consumers (primary eats the plants and are herbivores, secondary eats plants and animals and are omnivores, and the tertiary consumers are usually carnivores and are known as top predators.)
Random occurs when
individuals are spaced,
in a patternless, unpre-
dictable way. Dandelions
and white-tailed deer
Uniform is an even pattern of
Dispersion that results in
individuals of a population.
Creosote bush and black
Bears are examples
Clumped is when individuals
are aggregated into patches,
is the most common in nature.
Elephants and the American
Bison are clumped in groups or
Competition can affect population size. The larger the population, the greater the competition will occur. Organisms will compete for space, food, and mates.
population will increase the population size
will decrease the population size
Make up membranes
Examples of passive transport—
Osmosis—diffusion of WATERacross a
selectively permeable membrane
Diffusion—passive transport mainly of gases
Facilitated diffusion-passive transport of
substances using a carrier protein
Examples of active transport—
Endocytosis—bringing a substance INTO a cell ENTERING=ENDO”
Exocytosis—bringing a substance OUT of a cell “EXITING=EXO”
6CO2+ 6H2O + sunlight C6H12O6(sugar) + 6O2
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2+ 6H2O + 36 ATP
Example: height; mostly beings tend to the average height- not too many really short ones or really tall ones.
Example: speed; faster is always better so a population will tend to get faster over time.
This type of selection is not as common as the first two. Example: Prey-type animal with distinctive markings which the predators know will over time move away from the norm in both directions.
A cladogram is a phylogenetic tree.Phylogeny-is the study of evolutionary biology depicts the evolutionary relationships among organisms
Viruses have two cycles. The lysogenic cycles occur when the virus is a part of the host’s body, but is not actively reproducing. The lytic cycle is when the virus is active and reproducing and effecting the host.