War affected populations and cdd
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War Affected Populations and CDD. Designing demand-driven programs to serve war-affected populations. Objective of Study.

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War Affected Populations and CDD

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War affected populations and cdd

War Affected Populations and CDD

Designing demand-driven programs to serve war-affected populations

Objective of study

Objective of Study

  • Gain a better understanding of what design features World Bank demand-driven projects have used to best serve war affected populations (returning IDP, refugees, ex-combatants, war widows and orphans and other affected groups).

  • Provide a menu of options to TTLs and other partners interested in designing demand-driven projects that serve war affected populations and communities.

Projects serving war affected populations

Projects Serving War-affected Populations

  • The World Bank external database captures 174 projects serving conflict affected areas.

  • Of these 34 have some elements of a demand-driven project.

  • 10 of these projects were analyzed for the purpose of this study.

Overview of projects serving conflict areas

Overview of Projects Serving Conflict Areas

Projects serving war affected populations by sector

Projects Serving War-affected Populations by Sector

  • Sector Breakdown

    • Demobilization and Reintegration – 5%

    • Community Infrastructure Reconstruction – 36%

    • Macroeconomic Stabilization – 17%

    • Employment Creation/PW Reconstruction – 3%

    • HIV/AIDS – 2%

    • Other (Mostly Sector-specific) – 37%

Growth in projects serving war affected populations

Growth in # Projects Serving War-affected Populations

Project sample analyzed

Project Sample Analyzed

  • Colombia – Magdalena Medio Regional Development Project

  • Angola – Post Conflict Social Recovery Project

  • Eritrea Emergency Reconstruction Program

  • Rwanda – Community Reintegration and Development Project

  • Sierra Leone – National Social Action Project

  • Kosovo – Community Development Fund

  • Macedonia – Community Development Project

  • Afghanistan – National Community Empowerment Program

  • Sri Lanka – Northeast Irrigated Agriculture Project

  • East Timor – Third Community Empowerment and Local Governance Program

Categories of war affected populations

Categories of War-affected Populations

  • Ex-combatants (adults and children; rebels and government)

  • Internally Displaced People (IDPs)

  • Returning Refugees

  • Population that stayed

  • Vulnerable groups – widows, orphans, disabled, elderly, excluded ethnic groups

Characteristics of war affected areas populations served

Characteristics of War-affected Areas/Populations Served

  • Destroyed or debilitated social infrastructure (Schools, Health Posts, Roads)

  • Agriculture stalled, due to abandonment, mines, lack of access to inputs or markets; industry

  • High unemployment, due to destruction or abandonment of industry

  • Loss of basic households assets (land, house, cooking utensils, clothes, tools, etc.)

Characteristics of war affected areas populations served1

Characteristics of War-affected Areas/Populations Served

  • Psychologically and physically traumatized population

  • Destroyed social fabric – lack of trust and cohesion

  • High levels of poverty and extreme poverty

  • Children and youth who have lost several years of schooling

  • Malnourished and in poor health

Types of interventions community level

Types of Interventions – Community Level

  • Organization of democratically-elected and representative community councils

  • Participatory community planning – multi-sectoral plans – block grant approach (Afghanistan, Angola, Rwanda)

  • Socio-economic infrastructure

  • Social services projects targeting vulnerable groups (Kosovo and Macedonia)

Types of interventions community level1

Types of Interventions – Community Level

  • Productive activities (agriculture, micro-enterprise, etc.)

  • Capacity-building for community-level associations (needs assessment, project identification, planning, implementation and management.)

  • Promotion of social cohesion – within community and among communities

Types of interventions regional and municipal levels

Types of Interventions – Regional and Municipal Levels

  • Capacity building for local government to be more responsive to demand from communities – promotion of decentralized model – often building democratic forms of local government from the bottom up (East Timor, Rwanda, Afghanistan).

  • Projects serving multiple communities and municipalities or districts.

Targeting strategies used

Targeting Strategies Used

  • Geographic targetingof most affected regions (Angola, Rwanda)– Selection criteria included:

    • Security and accessibility

    • Presence of local government authority and willingness to participate

    • Extent of war damage to community infrastructure

    • Number of returning ex-combatants, IDPs, and refugees

Targeting strategies used1

Targeting Strategies Used

  • Poverty and Conflict Affected (Kosovo and Macedonia) - to ensure equity across regions

    • Allocations made to regions based upon following criteria:

      • Population size

      • Level and intensity of poverty

      • Unemployment rate

      • Number of persons displaced from each region

      • Number of damaged houses

Targeting strategies used2

Targeting Strategies Used

  • Allocations within regions based upon following criteria:

    • State of physical and social infrastructure

    • Presence of vulnerable or marginalized groups

    • Presence of ethnically mixed communities

    • Under-funded communities

    • Community capacity to plan

    • Community commitment level

    • Level of interest of municipal government in supporting recurrent costs

Targeting within communities to ensure inclusion of more vulnerable

Targeting within Communities to Ensure Inclusion of more Vulnerable

  • Ear-marked set-aside for mixed and minority communities affected by the conflict and vulnerable groups (e.g. widows and disabled) (Kosovo)

  • Community Clusters of 20 families to elect representative to Community Development Council and as framework for community-wide consultations (Afghanistan)

  • Separate forum for women to express priorities (Afghanistan)

Targeting within communities to ensure inclusion of more vulnerable1

Targeting within Communities to Ensure Inclusion of more Vulnerable

  • At least half of the project applications must come from women’s groups (East Timor)

  • Targeted social mobilization and communication campaigns to vulnerable groups (Rwanda)

  • Increased block grant to communities that involved IDPs and returning refugees in project planning (Afghanistan)

Role of community based organizations cbos

Role of Community-based Organizations (CBOs)

  • Community needs assessment, project identification and prioritization, planning, implementation, and M&O.

  • In-kind and cash contributions.

  • Mechanism for rebuilding social cohesion – getting former enemies to identify and plan a mutually beneficial activity

  • Mechanism for creating demand for better services from local government.

Role of local government

Role of Local Government

  • Heavy emphasis on building a democratic, responsive and transparent local government through capacity-building in social mobilization, participatory needs assessment, local planning, budgeting, financial management, procurement, maintenance, etc. (Afghanistan, Rwanda, East Timor, Sierra Leone)

  • Projects used as a vehicle to promote decentralization.

Role of central government

Role of Central Government

  • National level Project Management Unit affiliated with a Ministry to coordinate activities nation-wide – in some cases projects are approved at this level (Angola, Rwanda)

  • National Steering Committee – nexus for involvement of other sectors

  • Project often includes sub-offices at a sub-national level

Role of ngos

Role of NGOs

  • In most projects, NGOs have only a minor role.

  • In one case, the project management unit is an NGO, created for that purpose (Kosovo).

  • Most common role for NGOs – facilitators or suppliers of training, technical assistance to communities and, in some cases, local government (Afghanistan).

  • NGOs as intermediaries between government and community organizations due to weakness of local government (Angola).

How do these projects empower war affected communities populations

How do these projects Empower War-Affected Communities/Populations?

  • Gives them a voice in the reconstruction of their own community.

  • Gives them access to rehabilitated community assets – schools, health posts, water points – that will improve their future prospects.

  • Revitalizes their income generating assets (e.g. Irrigation systems in NE Sri Lanka).

  • Builds their capacity to negotiate with high levels of government.

  • Stabilizes their lives and allowing for gradual recovery from their past traumas.



  • Target the whole community - all have been affected in one way or another, while earmarking funds for most vulnerable households including orphans, former child soldiers, widows, disabled, etc.

  • Use the block grant approach and finance community plans, not just projects.

  • Pay extra attention to building representative community committees that involve all segments of the population – these are mechanisms for rebuilding social cohesion and preventing future conflict.

  • Use this program to promote decentralization and build a democratic form of local government from the bottom up.

Recommendations continued

Recommendations – (…continued)

  • Give bonus points or extra money for projects that target particularly vulnerable members of the community (Afghanistan – higher per capita for communities concerned with vulnerable groups, IDPs, and returning refugees).

  • Invest heavily in capacity-building of communities, local government.

  • Be patient – participatory processes take time, especially when involving war-affected and other vulnerable groups, but the results will be more sustainable.

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