War affected populations and cdd
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War Affected Populations and CDD. Designing demand-driven programs to serve war-affected populations. Objective of Study.

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War Affected Populations and CDD

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War Affected Populations and CDD

Designing demand-driven programs to serve war-affected populations


Objective of Study

  • Gain a better understanding of what design features World Bank demand-driven projects have used to best serve war affected populations (returning IDP, refugees, ex-combatants, war widows and orphans and other affected groups).

  • Provide a menu of options to TTLs and other partners interested in designing demand-driven projects that serve war affected populations and communities.


Projects Serving War-affected Populations

  • The World Bank external database captures 174 projects serving conflict affected areas.

  • Of these 34 have some elements of a demand-driven project.

  • 10 of these projects were analyzed for the purpose of this study.


Overview of Projects Serving Conflict Areas


Projects Serving War-affected Populations by Sector

  • Sector Breakdown

    • Demobilization and Reintegration – 5%

    • Community Infrastructure Reconstruction – 36%

    • Macroeconomic Stabilization – 17%

    • Employment Creation/PW Reconstruction – 3%

    • HIV/AIDS – 2%

    • Other (Mostly Sector-specific) – 37%


Growth in # Projects Serving War-affected Populations


Project Sample Analyzed

  • Colombia – Magdalena Medio Regional Development Project

  • Angola – Post Conflict Social Recovery Project

  • Eritrea Emergency Reconstruction Program

  • Rwanda – Community Reintegration and Development Project

  • Sierra Leone – National Social Action Project

  • Kosovo – Community Development Fund

  • Macedonia – Community Development Project

  • Afghanistan – National Community Empowerment Program

  • Sri Lanka – Northeast Irrigated Agriculture Project

  • East Timor – Third Community Empowerment and Local Governance Program


Categories of War-affected Populations

  • Ex-combatants (adults and children; rebels and government)

  • Internally Displaced People (IDPs)

  • Returning Refugees

  • Population that stayed

  • Vulnerable groups – widows, orphans, disabled, elderly, excluded ethnic groups


Characteristics of War-affected Areas/Populations Served

  • Destroyed or debilitated social infrastructure (Schools, Health Posts, Roads)

  • Agriculture stalled, due to abandonment, mines, lack of access to inputs or markets; industry

  • High unemployment, due to destruction or abandonment of industry

  • Loss of basic households assets (land, house, cooking utensils, clothes, tools, etc.)


Characteristics of War-affected Areas/Populations Served

  • Psychologically and physically traumatized population

  • Destroyed social fabric – lack of trust and cohesion

  • High levels of poverty and extreme poverty

  • Children and youth who have lost several years of schooling

  • Malnourished and in poor health


Types of Interventions – Community Level

  • Organization of democratically-elected and representative community councils

  • Participatory community planning – multi-sectoral plans – block grant approach (Afghanistan, Angola, Rwanda)

  • Socio-economic infrastructure

  • Social services projects targeting vulnerable groups (Kosovo and Macedonia)


Types of Interventions – Community Level

  • Productive activities (agriculture, micro-enterprise, etc.)

  • Capacity-building for community-level associations (needs assessment, project identification, planning, implementation and management.)

  • Promotion of social cohesion – within community and among communities


Types of Interventions – Regional and Municipal Levels

  • Capacity building for local government to be more responsive to demand from communities – promotion of decentralized model – often building democratic forms of local government from the bottom up (East Timor, Rwanda, Afghanistan).

  • Projects serving multiple communities and municipalities or districts.


Targeting Strategies Used

  • Geographic targetingof most affected regions (Angola, Rwanda)– Selection criteria included:

    • Security and accessibility

    • Presence of local government authority and willingness to participate

    • Extent of war damage to community infrastructure

    • Number of returning ex-combatants, IDPs, and refugees


Targeting Strategies Used

  • Poverty and Conflict Affected (Kosovo and Macedonia) - to ensure equity across regions

    • Allocations made to regions based upon following criteria:

      • Population size

      • Level and intensity of poverty

      • Unemployment rate

      • Number of persons displaced from each region

      • Number of damaged houses


Targeting Strategies Used

  • Allocations within regions based upon following criteria:

    • State of physical and social infrastructure

    • Presence of vulnerable or marginalized groups

    • Presence of ethnically mixed communities

    • Under-funded communities

    • Community capacity to plan

    • Community commitment level

    • Level of interest of municipal government in supporting recurrent costs


Targeting within Communities to Ensure Inclusion of more Vulnerable

  • Ear-marked set-aside for mixed and minority communities affected by the conflict and vulnerable groups (e.g. widows and disabled) (Kosovo)

  • Community Clusters of 20 families to elect representative to Community Development Council and as framework for community-wide consultations (Afghanistan)

  • Separate forum for women to express priorities (Afghanistan)


Targeting within Communities to Ensure Inclusion of more Vulnerable

  • At least half of the project applications must come from women’s groups (East Timor)

  • Targeted social mobilization and communication campaigns to vulnerable groups (Rwanda)

  • Increased block grant to communities that involved IDPs and returning refugees in project planning (Afghanistan)


Role of Community-based Organizations (CBOs)

  • Community needs assessment, project identification and prioritization, planning, implementation, and M&O.

  • In-kind and cash contributions.

  • Mechanism for rebuilding social cohesion – getting former enemies to identify and plan a mutually beneficial activity

  • Mechanism for creating demand for better services from local government.


Role of Local Government

  • Heavy emphasis on building a democratic, responsive and transparent local government through capacity-building in social mobilization, participatory needs assessment, local planning, budgeting, financial management, procurement, maintenance, etc. (Afghanistan, Rwanda, East Timor, Sierra Leone)

  • Projects used as a vehicle to promote decentralization.


Role of Central Government

  • National level Project Management Unit affiliated with a Ministry to coordinate activities nation-wide – in some cases projects are approved at this level (Angola, Rwanda)

  • National Steering Committee – nexus for involvement of other sectors

  • Project often includes sub-offices at a sub-national level


Role of NGOs

  • In most projects, NGOs have only a minor role.

  • In one case, the project management unit is an NGO, created for that purpose (Kosovo).

  • Most common role for NGOs – facilitators or suppliers of training, technical assistance to communities and, in some cases, local government (Afghanistan).

  • NGOs as intermediaries between government and community organizations due to weakness of local government (Angola).


How do these projects Empower War-Affected Communities/Populations?

  • Gives them a voice in the reconstruction of their own community.

  • Gives them access to rehabilitated community assets – schools, health posts, water points – that will improve their future prospects.

  • Revitalizes their income generating assets (e.g. Irrigation systems in NE Sri Lanka).

  • Builds their capacity to negotiate with high levels of government.

  • Stabilizes their lives and allowing for gradual recovery from their past traumas.


Recommendations

  • Target the whole community - all have been affected in one way or another, while earmarking funds for most vulnerable households including orphans, former child soldiers, widows, disabled, etc.

  • Use the block grant approach and finance community plans, not just projects.

  • Pay extra attention to building representative community committees that involve all segments of the population – these are mechanisms for rebuilding social cohesion and preventing future conflict.

  • Use this program to promote decentralization and build a democratic form of local government from the bottom up.


Recommendations – (…continued)

  • Give bonus points or extra money for projects that target particularly vulnerable members of the community (Afghanistan – higher per capita for communities concerned with vulnerable groups, IDPs, and returning refugees).

  • Invest heavily in capacity-building of communities, local government.

  • Be patient – participatory processes take time, especially when involving war-affected and other vulnerable groups, but the results will be more sustainable.


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