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Chapter 10: Development. The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography. Development. The process of improving the material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology More developed countries (MDCs) AKA developed countries

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Chapter 10 development

Chapter 10: Development

The Cultural Landscape:

An Introduction to Human Geography


Development
Development

  • The process of improving the material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology

  • More developed countries (MDCs)

    • AKA developed countries

  • Lesser developed countries (LDCs)

    • AKA emerging or developing countries


Why does development vary between countries
Why Does Development Vary Between Countries?

  • Economic indicators of development

    • The Human Development Index (HDI)

      • Four factors used to assess a country’s level of development:

        • Economic = (1) gross domestic product (GDP) per capita

        • Social = (2) literacy and (3) amount of education

        • Demographic = (4) life expectancy



Why does development vary among countries
Why Does Development Vary Among Countries?

  • Economic indicators of development

    • Types of jobs

      • Primary sector

      • Secondary sector

      • Tertiary sector

    • Productivity

      • Measured by the value added per capita

      • MDCs are more productive than LDCs

    • Consumer goods



Why does development vary among countries1
Why Does Development Vary Among Countries?

  • Social indicators of development

    • Education and literacy

      • The literacy rate

    • Health and welfare

      • Diet (adequate calories)

      • Access to health care



Why does development vary among countries2
Why Does Development Vary Among Countries?

  • Demographic indicators of development

    • Life expectancy

      • Babies born today in MDCs have a life expectancy in the 70s; babies born in LDCs, in the 60s

    • Other demographic indicators:

      • Infant mortality

      • Natural increase

      • Crude birth rate


Where are mdcs and ldcs distributed
Where are MDCs and LDCs Distributed?

  • More developed regions

    • North America and Europe

    • Other MDCs with high HDI = Russia, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand

  • Less developed regions

    • Latin America = highest HDI among LDCs

    • Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia = similar HDI

    • South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa = low levels of development



Where does level of development vary by gender
Where Does Level of Development Vary by Gender?

  • Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)

    • Compares the level of women’s development with that of both sexes

    • Four measures (similar to HDI):

      • Per capita female incomes as a percentage of male per capita incomes

      • Number of females enrolled in school compared to the number of males

      • Percent of literate females to literate males

      • Life expectancy of females to males




Where does level of development vary by gender1
Where Does Level of Development Vary by Gender?

  • Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)

    • Compares the decision-making capabilities of men and women in politics and economics

    • Uses economic and political indicators:

      • Per capita female incomes as a percentage of male per capita incomes

      • Percentage of technical and professional jobs held by women

      • Percentage of administrative jobs held by women

      • Percentage of women holding national office





Why do ldcs face obstacles to development
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development?

  • Development through self-sufficiency

    • Characteristics:

      • Pace of development = modest

      • Distribution of development = even

      • Barriers are established to protect local business

        • Three most common barriers = (1) tariffs, (2) quotas, and (3) restricting the number of importers

      • Two major problems with this approach:

        • Inefficient businesses are protected

        • A large bureaucracy is developed


Why do ldcs face obstacles to development1
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development?

  • Development through international trade

    • Rostow’s model of development

    • Examples of international trade approach

      • The “four Asian dragons”

      • Petroleum-rich Arabian Peninsula states

    • Three major problems:

      • Uneven resource distribution

      • Increased dependence on MDCs

      • Market decline


Models of development rostow international trade approach
Models of DevelopmentRostow: International Trade Approach


Why do ldcs face obstacles to development2
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development?

  • International trade approach triumphs

    • The path most commonly selected by the end of the twentieth century

    • Countries convert because evidence indicates that international trade is the more effective path toward development

      • Example: India

    • World Trade Organization

    • Foreign direct investment




Why do ldcs face obstacles to development3
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development?

  • Financing development

    • LDCs require money to fund development

    • Two sources of funds:

      • Loans

        • The World Bank and the IMF

        • Structural adjustment programs

      • Foreign direct investment from transnational corporations



Why do ldcs face obstacles to development4
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development?

  • Fair trade approach

    • Products are made and traded in a way that protects workers and small businesses in LDCs

    • Two sets of standards

      • Fair trade producer standards

      • Fair trade worker standards

    • Producers and workers usually earn more

    • Consumers usually pay higher prices



Models of economic development wallerstein s world system analysis
Models of Economic DevelopmentWallerstein’s World System Analysis

Core: High Income

High use of technology

High % of tertiary activities

High levels of Education by the majority of the population

OECD countries G8

Semi-Periphery: used to be peripheral states

Increased economic development

BRICS, 4 Dragons, Middle East

Eastern Europe

Periphery: Low Income

Low use of technology

High % of primary activities

Low levels of education by the majority of the population



The end

The End.

Up next: Industry & Services


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