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The Renaissance. 1400-1600. 1.1 The Renaissance . Began in Florence Italy. Means “re-birth” after the Middle Ages-Black Plaque Rebirth of classical Greek and Roman Produced: artists, architects, scholars, and scientists in short span of time. Time of creativity and change in many areas

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1 1 the renaissance
1.1 The Renaissance
  • Began in Florence Italy.
  • Means “re-birth” after the Middle Ages-Black Plaque
    • Rebirth of classical Greek and Roman
  • Produced: artists, architects, scholars, and scientists in short span of time.
  • Time of creativity and change in many areas
    • political, social, economic, and cultural.
  • Humanism-focus on individual accomplishments
  • Paintings were realistic and focused less on religious topics.
  • Rich families became patrons and commissioned great art. (de Medici’s)
dance renaissance court dances
Dance – Renaissance: Court Dances
  • court dances- fancy occasions for the upper class to show off in front of nobility.
    • heavy gowns, large headdresses, long lacy sleeves,
    • Movements were restrained and refined. Slides, glides, small, slow steps, poses, and curtsies.
    • first court dances were done low to the ground. (basse)
  • peasant dances- were lively and consisted of large, wide steps performed mostly on grassy town squares.
types of dances
Types of dances


a lively dance, which included a number of hops and kicking steps


  • meaning “peacock.”
  • a basse dance performed at ceremonies for Kings and Queens
  • movements were slow walking steps, which traveled forward and backward.
types of dances1
Types of dances

The Courante:

This dance displayed gestures of courtship and flirtation

The steps included walks, tiny runs, and glides.

Other forms of entertainment at the court


The Allemande:

  • Consisted of four dances together
  • Hands were held at all times during this dance
  • Movements were made up in such a way as to keep partners joined together throughout the dance.
  • Now used for a step in square dancing.
1 2 drama theatre renaissance
1.2 Drama/Theatre - Renaissance

Commedia dell’Arte- (Italy) means comedy of the professional guilds of artists

stock characters(10-12) some wore masks,

special skills of the actors, acrobats, dancers, musicians, and improvisers

Slapstick humor

short, physical comedy routines

only venue for women actors until the English stage in the late 17th century.

william shakespeare 1564 1616 elizabethan theater
William Shakespeare (1564-1616)Elizabethan Theater
  • English-speaking playwright
  • 38 plays
    • tragedy, comedy, and English history
  • During the reign of Elizabeth I
  • His plays occur over long periods of time, in many locations, and involve multiple subplots in addition to the main plot.
  • violence on stage, ghosts and spirits.
  • platform on stage in which multiple locations could be imagined.
  • outdoor theatres
  • Costuming was everyday clothing
  • Only men
examples of shakespeare s plays include
Examples of Shakespeare’s plays include:
  • Tragedy:
    • Romeo & Juliet, Macbeth, Hamlet, Julius Caesar, Othello
  • Comedy:
    • A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Twelfth Night, Much Ado About Nothing, Taming of the Shrew
  • History:
    • Henry V
the globe theatre
The Globe Theatre
  • In London built in 1599
  • Thrust stage
  • Paid according to where you sat
    • The yard or pit- paid a penny.
    • The gallery two pennies for the first level, three pennies for the second and so on.
  • Color of flag flying
    • Black- tragedy , white-comedy and red-history.
  • Destroyed by fire in 1613
  • Second Globe Theatre was built on the same site June 1614 and closed in 1642
    • Virtual tour
the summary of taming of the shrew
The Summary of Taming of the Shrew

The beautiful and gentle Bianca has no shortage of admirers (Lucentio, Gremio and Hortensio) but her father insists that she will not marry until her shrewish sister, Katharina, is betrothed.

Bianca\'s suitors persuade fortune-seeker Petruchio to court her. The suitors pay for any costs involved and there is also the goal of Katharina\'s dowry.

Petruchiomarries Katharina and he carries Katharina off to his country house with his servant Grumio.

Petruchiointends to browbeat Katharina into submission and he denies her food, sleep and her new clothes, whilst continuously singing her praises.

Katharina is tamed.

They return to Padua where Lucentio has won Bianca. At a banquet they wager on who has the most obedient wife.

Each wife is issued with commands but only Katharina obeys and promptly lectures everyone on the importance of wifely submission

taming of the shrew
Taming of the Shrew

"the shrew" refers to Katherine

"tamer of the shrew" refers to Petruccio,

sister in both the play and film have the same name, Bianca.

Baptista(the very wealthy father of Katherine and Bianca) desires to find husbands for both his daughters, offering a fine dowry; Bianca, the younger and fairer, gets more offers for marriage, but Baptista, for some reason, desires his eldest, Katherine, the "shrew," to marry first, restricting Bianca. From there, the character who desires Bianca, Lucentio, finds Petruccio, who only wants to marry, to "tame" Katherine, so Lucentio accordingly can marry Bianca.

10 things i hate about you
10 Things I hate about you

“Shrew” Katarina (Kat)

"tamer" Patrick (or \'Pat\').

Katarina\'s sister in both the play and film have the same name,

Walter (the father of Kat and Bianca), of course, desires the best for his daugters, as fathers ought.

To Bianca\'s demise, their father restricts her dating without Kat dating as well; Bianca, the more popular, extraverted, and absent-minded of the two, for her reasons, gets frustrated at her sister, Kat, who seems incapable of any positive human interaction.

For an upcoming dance, Bianca has a choice between two dates, Joey and Cameron, but her two rivaling dates find Pat, a rebellious teenager who plays the "shrew," and, who they think, may attract Kat, since, of course, Bianca cannot date without Kat.

Through Pat\'s often ridiculous and hilarious attempts, he wins Kat\'s heart, "taming" her anti-social ways.

1 3 renaissance music
1.3 Renaissance Music
  • Music helped to reconcile faith and reason
  • Movement from monophonic (one sound) to polyphonic
  • Polyphonic: many sounds
    • Multiple musical lines together
    • 2 or more separate voices or parts
    • Rise of instrumental and secular music (non-religious)
council of trent 1545 1562
Council of Trent (1545-1562)

Reformation in the Catholic church

  • Changes in music & mass
  • Away from polyphonic
  • Distracted from text
  • Wanted monophonic
giovanni pierluigi da palestrina
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
  • 1525-1594
  • Italian Renaissance Composer
  • polyphony
  • perfect balance of voices, seamless phrasing
  • the sound seems to never stop
  • Every voice part is equally important
  • Pope Marcellus Mass
    • Well-known work
other composers
Other Composers
  • John Dowland (1563-1626)
    • English known for melancholy songs- "Flow my tears”
  • Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594)
    • Franco-Flemish who studied polyphonic style
  • William Byrd (1543/1623)
    • English wrote church/liturgical music
  • Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
    • Italian composer, marked the transition from the Renaissance style of music to that of the Baroque period.
    • Opera-L\'Orfeo,
types of music
Types of Music


Secular music

Use several languages (English, Italian)

Performed by a small chorus

Polyphonic, use of Imitation

Texts are sometimes about erotic love

Use of word painting

Performed at a faster tempo

Used at courtly social gatherings


  • Sacred music used in the Mass
  • Sung in Latin
  • Polyphonic, use of Imitation
  • Performed a cappella with pure sound
  • Performed by a small chorus
1 4a visual art renaissance
1.4a Visual Art - Renaissance
  • Renaissance art united Christian faith and human reason.
  • Wealthy individuals and families supported learning and the arts through a system of patronage.
  • Wealthy patrons commissioned personal portraits, landscapes, and nudes.
  • Lorenzo de Medici was a member of the wealthiest family in Florence
  • Artists studied Classical Greek and Roman sculptures, as well as the science of anatomy
  • Linear perspective and atmospheric was discovered and allowed a completely realistic viewpoint.
  • Oil paint was invented in Northern Europe, and allowed artists to better capture realistic details.

Characteristics of Renaissance Art

1. Realism & Expression

  • Expulsion fromthe Garden
  • Masaccio
  • 1427
  • First nudes sinceclassical times.

2. Perspective

  • The Trinity
  • Masaccio
  • 1427








First use of linear perspective!

What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become.


3. Classicism

  • Greco-Roman influence.
  • Secularism.
  • Humanism.
  • Individualism  free standing figures.
  • Symmetry/Balance

The “Classical Pose”Medici “Venus” (1c)


4. Emphasis on Individualism

  • Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of Urbino
  • Pierodella Francesca, 1465-1466.

5. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures

  • The Dreyfus Madonna with the Pomegranate
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • 1469
  • The figure as architecture!

The Renaissance “Man”

  • Broad knowledge about many things in different fields.
  • Deep knowledge/skill in one area.
  • Able to link information from different areas/disciplines and create new knowledge.
  • The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded man” was at the heart of Renaissance education.
  • Renaissance Man Song
famous artists
Leonardo da Vinci (1452)Famous Artists

Botany, anatomy, music, architect, engineer

Dissected corpses to learn how bones and muscles work.

Mona Lisa and The Last Supper


Leonardo, the Artist

  • The Virgin of the Rocks
  • Leonardo daVinci
  • 1483-1486

The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498






  • Detail of Jesus
  • The Last Supper
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • 1498

Leonardo, the Sculptor

  • An Equestrian Statue
  • 1516-1518

Leonardo, the Architect:Pages from his Notebook

  • Plan of the city of Imola, 1502.

Leonardo, the Scientist (Biology):Pages from his Notebook

  • An example of the humanist desire to unlock the secrets of nature.

Leonardo, the Engineer: Pages from his Notebook

Studies of water-lifting devices.

A study of siege defenses.

michelangelo buonorrati 1475
Michelangelo Buonorrati (1475)

Sculptor, engineer, painter, architect

Pieta, which captures the sorrow of Mary as she cradles the dead Christ on her knees.

Statue of David

Sistine Chapel in Rome painted ceiling



  • He represented the body in three dimensions of sculpture.


  • 1504
  • Marble





The Pieta

  • 1499
  • marble

The Sistine Chapel Details

The Creation of the Heavens


A Modern “Adaptation”

Joe Gallo in the New York Daily News, 2004


The Sistine Chapel Details

The Fall from Grace

raphael 1483
Raphael (1483)
  • Painter
  • Raphael studied Michelangelo and da Vinci
  • Blended Christian and Classical styles.
  • Best known for his tender portrayals of the Madonna, the mother of Jesus.
  • The School of Athens (1509)

RaffaelloSanzio (1483-1520)

Self-Portrait, 1506

Portrait of the Artist with a Friend, 1518


Baldassare Castiglione by Raphael,1514-1515

  • Castiglione represented the humanist “gentleman” as a man of refinement and self-control.


Betrothal of the Virgin




Raphael’s Madonnas (1)

Sistine Madonna

Cowpepper Madonna


Raphael’s Madonnas (2)

Madonna della Sedia

Alba Madonna


The School of Athens – Raphael, 1510 -11

  • One point perspective.
  • All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are included A great variety of poses.
  • No Christian themes here.

The School of Athens – Raphael, details

Plato:looks to theheavens [or the IDEALrealm].

Aristotle:looks to thisearth [thehere andnow].



Was a member of the Medici family

His real name was Alessandro Filipepi

Liked to paint religious paintings for churches

Most famous work is The Birth of Venus


Birth of Venus – Botticelli, 1485

An attempt to depict perfect beauty.

1 4b northern renaissance art
1.4b Northern Renaissance Art

The continuation of late medieval attention to details.

Tendency toward realism & naturalism [less emphasis on the “classical ideal”].

Interest in landscapes.

More emphasis on middle-class and peasant life.

Details of domestic interiors.

Great skill in portraiture.

jan van eyck 1395 1441
Jan van Eyck (1395 – 1441)
  • Developed oil painting
  • More courtly and aristocratic work.
    • Court painter to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good.
  • The Virgin and Chancellor Rolin, 1435.
albrecht d rer 1471 1528
Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528)
  • The greatest of German artists.
  • A scholar as well as an artist.
  • Scientist
    • Wrote books on geometry, fortifications, and human proportions.
  • Self-conscious individualism of the Renaissance is seen in his portraits.
  •  Self-Portrait at 26, 1498.
pieter bruegel the elder 1525 1569
Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525-1569)
  • One of the greatest artistic geniuses of his age.
  • In touch with humaniststhoughts.
  • Was deeply concerned with human vice and follies.
  • A master of landscapes.
    • People in his works often have round, blank, heavy faces.
    • They are expressionless, mindless, and sometimes malicious.
    • They are types, rather than individuals.
    • Their purpose is to convey a message.
renaissance art game
Renaissance Art Game

renaissance review
Renaissance Review

Time of rebirth after dark Middle Ages

Artwork flourished

“renaissance man”-someone who could do it all

Dances were performed at the King’s court or in grassy towns by peasants.

People wore heavy garments

Shakespeare wrote plays that were performed at the Globe theatre in London.