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Unit 8A: Motivation and Emotion: Motivation

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Unit 8A: Motivation and Emotion: Motivation. Unit Overview. Motivational Concepts Hunger Sexual Motivation The Need to Belong. Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation. Introduction. Motivation. Motivational Concepts.

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unit overview
Unit Overview
  • Motivational Concepts
  • Hunger
  • Sexual Motivation
  • The Need to Belong

Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.

  • Motivation
instincts and evolutionary psychology
Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology
  • Instinct (fixed pattern)
    • Instincts in animals
    • Instincts in humans
drives and incentives
Drives and Incentives
  • Drive-reduction theory
    • Homeostasis
    • Need
    • Drive
    • Drive reduction
drives and incentives1
Drives and Incentives
  • Drive-reduction theory
    • Homeostasis
    • Need
    • Drive
    • Drive reduction
drives and incentives2
Drives and Incentives
  • Drive-reduction theory
    • Homeostasis
    • Need
    • Drive
    • Drive reduction
drives and incentives3
Drives and Incentives
  • Incentive
    • Positive and negative
optimum arousal
Optimum Arousal
  • Arousal
    • Optimum level of arousal
a hierarchy of motives
A Hierarchy of Motives
  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    • Variations in the hierarchy
the physiology of hunger
The Physiology of Hunger
  • Contractions of the stomach
    • Washburn study
the physiology of hunger body chemistry and the brain
The Physiology of HungerBody Chemistry and the Brain
  • Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Hypothalamus
    • Lateral hypothalamus
      • orexin
    • Vetromedial hypothalamus
the physiology of hunger body chemistry and the brain1
The Physiology of HungerBody Chemistry and the Brain
  • Appetite hormones
    • Ghrelin
    • Obestatin
    • PYY
    • Leptin
  • Set point
  • Basal metabolic rate
the psychology of hunger taste preferences biology and culture
The Psychology of HungerTaste Preferences: Biology and Culture
  • Taste preferences
    • Genetic: sweet and salty
    • Neophobia
    • Adaptive taste preferences
the psychology of hunger eating disorders
The Psychology of HungerEating Disorders
  • Eating disorders
    • Anorexia nervosa
    • Bulimia nervosa
    • Binge-eating disorder
obesity and weight control
Obesity and Weight Control
  • Historical explanations for obesity
  • Obesity
    • Definition
    • Statistics
    • Obesity and life expectancy
obesity and weight control the social effects of obesity
Obesity and Weight ControlThe Social Effects of Obesity
  • Social effects of obesity
  • Weight discrimination
  • Psychological effects of obesity
obesity and weight control the physiology of obesity2
Obesity and Weight ControlThe Physiology of Obesity
  • The genetic factor
  • The food and activity factor
    • Sleep loss
    • Social influence
    • Food consumption and activity level
obesity and weight control losing weight
Obesity and Weight ControlLosing Weight
  • Realistic and moderate goals
  • Success stories
  • Attitudinal changes
the physiology of sex the sexual response cycle
The Physiology of SexThe Sexual Response Cycle
  • Sexual response cycle
    • Excitement phase
    • Plateau phase
    • Orgasm
    • Resolution phase
      • Refractory period
the physiology of sex hormones and sexual behavior
The Physiology of SexHormones and Sexual Behavior
  • Effects of hormones
    • Development of sexual characteristics
    • Activate sexual behavior
  • Estrogen
  • Testosterone
the psychology of sex
The Psychology of Sex
  • External stimuli
  • Imagined stimuli
    • Dreams
    • Sexual fantasies
adolescent sexuality teen pregnancy
Adolescent SexualityTeen Pregnancy
  • Ignorance
  • Minimal communication about birth control
  • Guilt related to sexual activity
  • Alcohol use
  • Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity
adolescent sexuality sexually transmitted infections
Adolescent SexualitySexually Transmitted Infections
  • Statistics of STIs
  • Teen abstinence
    • High intelligence
    • Religious engagement
    • Father presence
    • Participation in service learning programs
    • xxx
sexual orientation
Sexual Orientation
  • Sexual orientation
    • Homosexual orientation
    • Heterosexual orientation
  • Sexual orientation statistics
the need to belong1
The Need to Belong
  • Aiding survival
  • Wanting to belong
  • Sustaining relationships
  • The pain of ostracism
    • ostracism
teacher information
Teacher Information
  • Types of Files
    • This presentation has been saved as a “basic” Powerpoint file. While this file format placed a few limitations on the presentation, it insured the file would be compatible with the many versions of Powerpoint teachers use. To add functionality to the presentation, teachers may want to save the file for their specific version of Powerpoint.
  • Animation
    • Once again, to insure compatibility with all versions of Powerpoint, none of the slides are animated. To increase student interest, it is suggested teachers animate the slides wherever possible.
  • Adding slides to this presentation
    • Teachers are encouraged to adapt this presentation to their personal teaching style. To help keep a sense of continuity, blank slides which can be copied and pasted to a specific location in the presentation follow this “Teacher Information” section.
teacher information1
Teacher Information
  • Hyperlink Slides - This presentation contain two types of hyperlinks. Hyperlinks can be identified by the text being underlined and a different color (usually purple).
    • Unit subsections hyperlinks: Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (slide #3) can be found listing all of the unit’s subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. This allows teachers quick access to each subsection.
    • Bold print term hyperlinks: Every bold print term from the unit is included in this presentation as a hyperlink. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of the hyperlinks will take the user to a slide containing the formal definition of the term. Clicking on the “arrow” in the bottom left corner of the definition slide will take the user back to the original point in the presentation.

These hyperlinks were included for teachers who want students to see or copy down the exact definition as stated in the text. Most teachers prefer the definitions not be included to prevent students from only “copying down what is on the screen” and not actively listening to the presentation.

For teachers who continually use the Bold Print Term Hyperlinks option, please contact the author using the email address on the next slide to learn a technique to expedite the returning to the original point in the presentation.

teacher information2
Teacher Information
  • Continuity slides
    • Throughout this presentation there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that build on one another. These are included for three purposes.
      • By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts.
      • By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation.
      • To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to think about “what might come next” in the series of slides.
  • Please feel free to contact me at [email protected] with any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these presentations.

Kent Korek

Germantown High School

Germantown, WI 53022


[email protected]

division title green print subdivision title blue print1
Division title (green print)subdivision title (blue print)

Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished

definition slide
Definition Slide

= add definition here


= a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.


= a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.

drive reduction theory
Drive-reduction Theory

= the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.


= a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.


= a positive or negative environment stimulus that motivates behavior

hierarchy of needs
Hierarchy of Needs

= Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.


= the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.

set point
Set Point

= the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.

basal metabolic rate
Basal Metabolic Rate

= the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure.

anorexia nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa

= an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.

bulimia nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa

= an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.

binge eating disorder
Binge-eating Disorder

= significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa.

sexual response cycle
Sexual Response Cycle

= the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson – excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

refractory period
Refractory Period

= a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.


= sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amount by females than males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.


= the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.

sexual orientation1
Sexual Orientation

= an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).