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System Engineering and Analysis. “ What is the role of the software product?”. Lecture Objectives. To examine the elements of a computer-based system To understand the development process of a system To illustrate the representations of a business information system. Definition of System.

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system engineering and analysis
System Engineering and Analysis

“What is the role of the software product?”

TCS2411 Software Engineering

lecture objectives
Lecture Objectives
  • To examine the elements of a computer-based system
  • To understand the development process of a system
  • To illustrate the representations of a business information system

TCS2411 Software Engineering

definition of system
Definition of System

“A collection of interrelated components that work together to achieve some objective”

Objective: to develop a product, to support business functions…etc.

TCS2411 Software Engineering

information system types

Data

Process

Information

Information system types
  • Manual (read a text by your eyes then summarize using your pen)
  • Automated (get the information through a computerized system)

TCS2411 Software Engineering

system environments
system environments
  • Internal, like users, organization structure and procedures
  • External, consists of all factors outside the organization that affect the system

TCS2411 Software Engineering

system elements
System Elements
  • Software: computer programs, data structures, and related documents.
  • Hardware: electronic computing devices and connectivity devices.
  • People: users and operators.
  • Database: large and organized collection of information that is accessed via the software.
  • Documentation: descriptive information for user and operator (e.g. hardcopy manuals, on-line help files)
  • Procedures: steps that define the specific use of each system element.

TCS2411 Software Engineering

system life cycle phases
System Life Cycle Phases
  • Initial Strategy
      • Identification of needs, problems, opportunities, goal objectives and scope.
      • Critical to the success of the project.
      • The analyst must be honest.
      • The analyst must discover what the business is trying to do.

TCS2411 Software Engineering

system life cycle phases continued
System Life Cycle Phases (Continued)
  • Determining the Requirements (Information and Tools)
      • Several tools are used to define IR in the business, sampling, investigating of hard data, interviewing, questionnaires, observing, prototyping.
      • The analyst is striving to understand what information users need to perform their job

TCS2411 Software Engineering

system life cycle phases continued10
System Life Cycle Phases (Continued)
  • Feasibility Study
      • Economic, technical, legal feasibility (can be done or not).
      • Cost-benefit analysis, risk assessment
      • "Go / no-go" decision
  • Analysis
      • Requirements definition & specification
      • there are some special tools and techniques that help the analyst as DFD, Data Dictionary

TCS2411 Software Engineering

system life cycle phases continued11
System Life Cycle Phases (Continued)
  • Design
      • Logical & Physical Design (Design the interface, input/output, file or database)
      • System specifications
  • Implementation
      • Installation
      • Training
      • File conversion
      • Systems testing, security

TCS2411 Software Engineering

system life cycle phases continued12
System Life Cycle Phases (Continued)
  • Maintenance, Review and Test
      • Amendments (fix) by the programmers
      • System audit, by the programmers and analyst

TCS2411 Software Engineering

system engineering hierarchy
System Engineering Hierarchy

Business or

product domain

Domain of

interest

World view

System

element

Domain view

Element view

Detailed view

TCS2411 Software Engineering

system engineering hierarchy continue
System Engineering Hierarchy continue
  • World view: the entire business or technology is examined.
  • Domain view: specific domain of interest.
  • Element view: the need for targeted system element (e.g. data, software, hardware, people) is analyzed.
  • Detailed view: analysis, design, and construction of a targeted system element.

TCS2411 Software Engineering

system modeling
System Modeling

The engineer creates models that:

  • define processes for the view under consideration.
  • represent behaviour of the processes
  • explicitly define exogenous and endogenous input to the model
  • represent all linkages (including output) to better understand the view

TCS2411 Software Engineering

exogenous endogenous inputs
Exogenous & Endogenous Inputs
  • Exogenous inputs link one constituent of a view with other constituents (at the same or other levels)
  • Endogenous inputs link individual components of a constituent at a particular view

TCS2411 Software Engineering

restraining factors of system model
Restraining Factors of System Model
  • Assumptions
  • Simplifications
  • Limitations
  • Constraints
  • Preferences

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enterprise modeling
Enterprise Modeling
  • Organizational structure
  • Business-level data modeling
  • Process modeling
  • Information flow modeling

TCS2411 Software Engineering

organizational structure
Organizational Structure

XYZ

Company

Corporate

Support

Sales &

Marketing

Engineering

Manufacturing

…..

Finance

Planning

TCS2411 Software Engineering

business level data modeling
Business-level Data Modeling

describes

Product A

Salesperson

sells

purchases

contacts

Customer

evaluates

assists

inquires about

TCS2411 Software Engineering

process modeling
Process Modeling

Establish

customer

contact

Prepare

delivery

order

Provide

product

info

Check

availability

Provide

evaluation

product

Address

questions/

concerns

Accept

sales

order

TCS2411 Software Engineering

information flow modeling
Information Flow Modeling

Contact record

Establish

customer

contact

Prepare

delivery

order

Product

info

Provide

product

info

Product

description

Customer

d.o. info

Check

availability

Provide

evaluation

product

queries

Address

questions/

concerns

order

availability

Accept

sales

order

Inventory

configuration

TCS2411 Software Engineering

summary
Summary
  • System analysis provides the ‘big’ picture of the computer-based system where software is to be used
  • By understanding the system, a better software product can be produced
  • Identification of elements of the system provides the framework for software requirements

TCS2411 Software Engineering

software requirements specifications
Software Requirements Specifications
  • Problem Statement
    • system reference, problem areas
  • Data model
    • Entity Relationship Diagram
  • Functional requirements
    • List of functions, Context diagram, DFD
  • Behaviour model
    • State Transition Diagram
  • Glossary of Terms

TCS2411 Software Engineering

references
References
  • “Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach” 5th Ed. by Roger S. Pressman, Mc-Graw-Hill, 2001
  • “Software Engineering” by Ian Sommerville, Addison-Wesley, 2001

TCS2411 Software Engineering

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