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System Engineering and Analysis. “ What is the role of the software product?”. Lecture Objectives. To examine the elements of a computer-based system To understand the development process of a system To illustrate the representations of a business information system. Definition of System.

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System Engineering and Analysis

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System engineering and analysis l.jpg

System Engineering and Analysis

“What is the role of the software product?”

TCS2411 Software Engineering


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Lecture Objectives

  • To examine the elements of a computer-based system

  • To understand the development process of a system

  • To illustrate the representations of a business information system

TCS2411 Software Engineering


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Definition of System

“A collection of interrelated components that work together to achieve some objective”

Objective: to develop a product, to support business functions…etc.

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Data

Process

Information

Information system types

  • Manual (read a text by your eyes then summarize using your pen)

  • Automated (get the information through a computerized system)

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system environments

  • Internal, like users, organization structure and procedures

  • External, consists of all factors outside the organization that affect the system

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System Elements

  • Software: computer programs, data structures, and related documents.

  • Hardware: electronic computing devices and connectivity devices.

  • People: users and operators.

  • Database: large and organized collection of information that is accessed via the software.

  • Documentation: descriptive information for user and operator (e.g. hardcopy manuals, on-line help files)

  • Procedures: steps that define the specific use of each system element.

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TCS2411 Software Engineering


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System Life Cycle Phases

  • Initial Strategy

    • Identification of needs, problems, opportunities, goal objectives and scope.

    • Critical to the success of the project.

    • The analyst must be honest.

    • The analyst must discover what the business is trying to do.

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System Life Cycle Phases (Continued)

  • Determining the Requirements (Information and Tools)

    • Several tools are used to define IR in the business, sampling, investigating of hard data, interviewing, questionnaires, observing, prototyping.

    • The analyst is striving to understand what information users need to perform their job

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System Life Cycle Phases (Continued)

  • Feasibility Study

    • Economic, technical, legal feasibility (can be done or not).

    • Cost-benefit analysis, risk assessment

    • "Go / no-go" decision

  • Analysis

    • Requirements definition & specification

    • there are some special tools and techniques that help the analyst as DFD, Data Dictionary

  • TCS2411 Software Engineering


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    System Life Cycle Phases (Continued)

    • Design

      • Logical & Physical Design (Design the interface, input/output, file or database)

      • System specifications

  • Implementation

    • Installation

    • Training

    • File conversion

    • Systems testing, security

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    System Life Cycle Phases (Continued)

    • Maintenance, Review and Test

      • Amendments (fix) by the programmers

      • System audit, by the programmers and analyst

    TCS2411 Software Engineering


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    System Engineering Hierarchy

    Business or

    product domain

    Domain of

    interest

    World view

    System

    element

    Domain view

    Element view

    Detailed view

    TCS2411 Software Engineering


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    System Engineering Hierarchy continue

    • World view: the entire business or technology is examined.

    • Domain view: specific domain of interest.

    • Element view: the need for targeted system element (e.g. data, software, hardware, people) is analyzed.

    • Detailed view: analysis, design, and construction of a targeted system element.

    TCS2411 Software Engineering


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    System Modeling

    The engineer creates models that:

    • define processes for the view under consideration.

    • represent behaviour of the processes

    • explicitly define exogenous and endogenous input to the model

    • represent all linkages (including output) to better understand the view

    TCS2411 Software Engineering


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    Exogenous & Endogenous Inputs

    • Exogenous inputs link one constituent of a view with other constituents (at the same or other levels)

    • Endogenous inputs link individual components of a constituent at a particular view

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    Restraining Factors of System Model

    • Assumptions

    • Simplifications

    • Limitations

    • Constraints

    • Preferences

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    Enterprise Modeling

    • Organizational structure

    • Business-level data modeling

    • Process modeling

    • Information flow modeling

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    Organizational Structure

    XYZ

    Company

    Corporate

    Support

    Sales &

    Marketing

    Engineering

    Manufacturing

    …..

    Finance

    Planning

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    Business-level Data Modeling

    describes

    Product A

    Salesperson

    sells

    purchases

    contacts

    Customer

    evaluates

    assists

    inquires about

    TCS2411 Software Engineering


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    Process Modeling

    Establish

    customer

    contact

    Prepare

    delivery

    order

    Provide

    product

    info

    Check

    availability

    Provide

    evaluation

    product

    Address

    questions/

    concerns

    Accept

    sales

    order

    TCS2411 Software Engineering


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    Information Flow Modeling

    Contact record

    Establish

    customer

    contact

    Prepare

    delivery

    order

    Product

    info

    Provide

    product

    info

    Product

    description

    Customer

    d.o. info

    Check

    availability

    Provide

    evaluation

    product

    queries

    Address

    questions/

    concerns

    order

    availability

    Accept

    sales

    order

    Inventory

    configuration

    TCS2411 Software Engineering


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    Summary

    • System analysis provides the ‘big’ picture of the computer-based system where software is to be used

    • By understanding the system, a better software product can be produced

    • Identification of elements of the system provides the framework for software requirements

    TCS2411 Software Engineering


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    Software Requirements Specifications

    • Problem Statement

      • system reference, problem areas

    • Data model

      • Entity Relationship Diagram

    • Functional requirements

      • List of functions, Context diagram, DFD

    • Behaviour model

      • State Transition Diagram

    • Glossary of Terms

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    References

    • “Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach” 5th Ed. by Roger S. Pressman, Mc-Graw-Hill, 2001

    • “Software Engineering” by Ian Sommerville, Addison-Wesley, 2001

    TCS2411 Software Engineering


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