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Growth of Industrialization. The Rise of Industrialism. 2.2 A Shift from craftsmanship to machine manufacturing U.S. ranked 1 st in the world for Industrial goods, ushering us into the modern age. Key Factors in Industrial Growth Abundant supply of natural resources; coal, oil, and iron ore

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The Rise of Industrialism

2.2 A

  • Shift from craftsmanship to machine manufacturing

  • U.S. ranked 1st in the world for Industrial goods, ushering us into the modern age.

    Key Factors in Industrial Growth

  • Abundant supply of natural resources; coal, oil, and iron ore

  • Improved transportation allowed coast to coast accessibility

    • International markets open up

  • Population shift from rural to urban centers.

    • Increased from 25 to over 50%, providing an abundant labor supply

      Government Support for Industrialization

  • Government maintained a laissez-faire, or “hands off” approach.

  • No personal income tax until 1913, and high tariffs on foreign goods.

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Invention and Innovation

2.2 B

The Spirit of Innovation

  • Between 1860-1900 the U.S. Patent Office granted 676,000 patents

    Steel is King

  • Henry Bessemer discovers way to produce steel that is cost effective.

    • Railroads can carry heavier cars, and travel faster

    • Steel used in beams to crate new stronger buildings, such as skyscrapers

    • Bridges can hold heavier weight

      Electricity is Widespread

  • Introduction of electricity spurred innovations

    • Telegraph, and telephone increase communication

    • Escalators, elevators, central heating, and generators make life more comfortable

      Machines Increase Productivity

  • Sewing Machines, and other assembly line machines speed up production

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Industrial Leaders


Industrial Giants

  • John D. Rockefeller and Oil

    • Controlled 90% of the total oil industry in an attempt to monopolize it

    • Collected royalties on railroads, oil pipelines, and boats used for its transportation

  • Andrew Carnegie and Steel

    • Strong ties with railroads, and shipping lines

    • Produced ¼ of nations Bessemer’s Steel

      Other Industry Leaders

  • Cornelius Vanderbilt, railroad industry

  • Duke Family, tobacco industry

    “The Gilded Age”

  • Writer Mark Twain labeled this time period because of the open displays of wealth Among American elite society seemed like a cheap picture frame – Golden on the outside, but rotting on the inside.

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Trusts and Government Corruption


The Rise of Industrial Trusts

  • As industrialism progressed, businesses combined competing companies into monstrous firms called trusts

  • Rockefeller’s Standard Oil trust was among the most monstrous trusts because he used ruthless tactics to eliminate his competition and control the oil industry.

    Trusts Influence Government Affairs

  • Trusts manipulated the government at the federal, state, and local levels

  • Trusts call for minimal government regulation

    City Government Corruption

  • Jane Addams, a social reformer remarked in “Why the Ward Boss Rules,” laborers tended to vote for whichever boss promised to help them

  • In Tammany Hall, bosses gave families gifts with the corrupt intent to win their political favor.

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Criticism and Defense of Big Business


Wealthy Americans face Criticism

  • Most Americans disapproved of the fact that so few individuals controlled the majority of America’s natural resources, industries, and utilities.

    Industrialists Defend Big Business

  • Andrew Carnegie was known for his philanthropic work, donating over $350 million to both public and private works.

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The Impact of Industrialism


Industrialization Benefits the Middle Class

  • National wealth and income grew significantly and middle-class Americans experienced greater comforts and conveniences in daily life

    Life for Average Americans

  • ¾ of the population lived in crowded tenements and company towns

    Industrial Working Conditions

  • Laborers worked in deplorable conditions 10-12 hours 6 days a week

  • Many are killed, permanently injured and disfigured

    Low Pay and Reasons to Stay

  • With a competing supply of labor employers were anxious to maximize efficiency and were quick to dismiss workers

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Change and Discrimination in the Work Force


Industrialism and Women

  • Woman’s roles shifted and more and more entered the work force

  • They worked for considerably less money, usually 50% of a man’s pay

    Child Labor

  • Laborers from age 10-15 worked 15 hours a day under horrible conditions

    Minority and Immigrant Laborers

  • Worked in unskilled positions and were willing to work for almost nothing

  • Business managers recruited ethnic labor groups, whom they pitted against one another to the benefit of the industry.

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Organized Labor


Labor Unions Emerge

  • Labors organized in hope to influence big business.

  • Knights of Labor and Terence Powderly

    • Membership open to all, aimed to secure a 8 hr day, equal pay, and elimination of child labor

  • The American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers

    • White skilled workers, higher and safer working conditions

      Business Response to Labor

  • Laissez-faire gov., and supply of laborers, had advantage over unions

    Strikes and Violence

  • 1877 Pittsburgh railway workers strike resulted in over 25 deaths

    Union Victories

  • Most industries set max. work hours, compensation, and child labor laws

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Food contamination and Muckrakers


Consumer Fraud

  • Industrial growth brought unfair and unethical business practices

  • There were no safeguards against poor quality and misleading advertising

    The Meatpacking Industry

  • Upton Sinclair investigated meatpacking industries and wrote The Jungle

  • Uncovered diseased pork, bologna made of diseased cow, sawdust, and dirt

  • Helped influence Theodore Roosevelt to pass meat inspection laws

  • 100’s of soldiers died in the Spanish American War from eating tainted meat


  • Those who concentrated on exposing the ills of society rather than proposing solutions to them. They actually helped pave way for future reforms.

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The Toll on the Environment


Environmental impact

  • Increase in the use of nonrenewable, or polluting fuels (oil, coal, natural gas)

    Mining and Deforestation

  • Methods used were devastating to environment

  • They included blasting mountain sides, and dumping waste into rivers

  • Forests were leveled, and permanently destroyed

    Air and Water pollution

  • Industries disregard for the environment resulted in water and air pollution

    Environmental Reformers

  • Gifford Pinchot, founder of the American Conservation Movement, and John Muir both fought to reform the timber industry