Industrialization of america
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Industrialization of America. “Rags to Riches” L A B O R. Transformation of America. Workers and the Rise of Unions. INDUSTRIALIZATION AND LABOR. POWERHOUSE The Working Man. Men, Women & Children. I N D U S T R I A L I Z A T I O N.

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Industrialization of America

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Industrialization of America

“Rags to Riches”

L A B O R


Transformationof America

Workers and the Rise of Unions

INDUSTRIALIZATION AND LABOR


POWERHOUSEThe Working Man

Men, Women & Children


I N D U S T R I A L I Z A T I O N

  • Immigration provided industry with an abundant supply of labor.

  • Over 14 million immigrants came to the United States between 1860 & 1900.

  • Contract Labor Act of 1864.


U R B A N I Z A T I O N

  • Growth of big cities.

  • Immigrants settling in cities

  • People moving from rural areas to cities for jobs in factories.


Shifts in Population and Employment, 1860-1900


F A C T O R Y W O R K


Piecework & Sweatshops

  • PIECEWORK -Workers paid a fixed amount for each item that they produced.

    • Garment workers

    • Cigar workers

  • SWEATSHOP- shop where employees worked for long hours and under poor working conditions.


SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

  • Frederick Winslow Taylor

  • The Principles of Scientific Management

  • How to improve worker efficiency.

    • Break down different tasks and proper amount of time to complete

    • Productivity Increases

    • PROFIT$ increase


Division of Labor

  • Separation of the tasks of production.

  • Workers completed one task to produce an item.

  • Concept of the assembly line.

  • The end of the artisan.


Working Conditions


GUN FOUNDRYby John Ferguson Wier


The Working Man burning On the stake of Monopoly


LABORERS

  • Ruled by the CLOCK

    • Start, breaks, stop.

  • Long working hours

    • No minimum work day.

  • Six-day work week

    • Only day off Sunday.

  • Dangerous and Unsafe.

    • No workers compensation for injuries.

  • Low wages.

    • No minimum wage

    • Competition for jobs


Child Labor

Jacob Riis, Children of the Poor (1892)


Child Labor

  • Jacob Riis and Lewis Hine used photography to document the exploitation of child labor.


Child Labor

  • No laws prohibited use of child labor

  • 1880s approximately 5% of workforce was made up of children.

  • Families relied on income for children to survive.


W O R K E R S O R G A N I Z E


Uneven distribution of IncomeThe Gilded Age

Wide gap between the wealthiest Americans and the working class and poor


S O C I A L I S M

  • Philosophy that promotes government/public control of business and the economy.

    • Government run industries

    • Government set production goals

    • Government set wages

  • Society, not individuals, control the wealth.

  • Advocate equal distribution of wealth to all.

Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto


NOBLE and HOLY ORDER of the KNIGHTS of LABOR


Knights of Labor

  • Formed Philadelphia, 1869

  • Admitted men and women

  • Skilled and unskilled workers.

  • Farmers and factory workers.

  • Recruited African Americans


Knights of Labor

  • Lead by Terrence Powderly

  • Promoted social reforms

    • Equal pay for equal work

    • Eight-hour work day

    • End child labor


AMERICAN FEDERATION of LABOR


AF of L

  • Formed under leadership of Samuel Gompers in 1886

  • Skilled workers only

  • African Americans allowed but discouraged

  • Women not allowed

    • Lower wages.


American Federation of Labor

  • “Bread & Butter” unionism.

  • Focus on wages, work hours, and working conditions

  • Political activity, education, strikes, boycotts and collective bargaining


INDUSTRIAL WORKERS of THE WORLD

  • WOBBLIES

  • Formed in Chicago in 1905.

  • Lead by socialists and radicals

  • Focused on unskilled workers


GREAT RAILROAD STRIKE OF 1877

  • Began over wage cuts and increased work.

  • Railroad workers went on strike and rioted.

  • President Rutherford B. Hayes sent in troops to protect railroad property.

  • Eugene V. Debs established American Railway Union.

  • Lesson – Federal government would act on the behalf of business over labor and use the military against labor.


HAYMARKET MASSACRE1886

  • “Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest, eight hours for what we will.”

  • Labor demonstration at Haymarket Square in Chicago.

  • Anarchists involved

  • Bomb thrown into crowd killing a police officer and igniting a riot. Gunfire. Dozen killed.


HAYMARKET MASSACRE 1886

Knights of Labor blamed. Effectively ends that union.

Lesson- Public believes unions are dangerous and violent.


HOMESTEAD STRIKE 1892

  • Steel workers went on strike when Henry Frick decided to cut workers wages at Carnegie Steel.

  • Called in Pinkerton detectives against strikers.

  • Battle of Homestead fought between Pinkertons and the strikers.

  • Attempted murder of Frick by an anarchist was blamed on the strikers.

  • Public opinion turned against union

  • Lessons – public belief that unions were dangerous, violent and unAmerican.


PULLMAN STRIKE 1894

  • George Pullman

  • Pullman Company

  • Railroad cars

  • Pullman, Illinois

  • Pullman workers paid in company money

  • Cut wages to his workers

  • Raised rent


PULLMAN STRIKE

  • Workers protested, Pullman refused to negotiate.

  • Debs and A.R.U. supported.

  • Refused to work on trains that had Pullman cars

  • More than 260,000 railroad workers joined strike

  • Railroad owners asked for federal court to intervene.

  • Court ordered strike illegal because it interfered with free trade

  • President Grover Cleveland sent in federal troops to enforce court order

  • Lesson – Federal government side with business over labor.


The SOCIAL DEMOCRACY OF AMERICA

Eugene V. Debs

AMERICAN SOCIALIST PARTY


Labor – “Hopelessly Bound To The Stake”


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