Industrialization of america
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Industrialization of America. “Rags to Riches” L A B O R. Transformation of America. Workers and the Rise of Unions. INDUSTRIALIZATION AND LABOR. POWERHOUSE The Working Man. Men, Women & Children. I N D U S T R I A L I Z A T I O N.

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Industrialization of America

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Industrialization of america

Industrialization of America

“Rags to Riches”

L A B O R


Transformation of america

Transformationof America

Workers and the Rise of Unions

INDUSTRIALIZATION AND LABOR


Powerhouse the working man

POWERHOUSEThe Working Man

Men, Women & Children


I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n

I N D U S T R I A L I Z A T I O N

  • Immigration provided industry with an abundant supply of labor.

  • Over 14 million immigrants came to the United States between 1860 & 1900.

  • Contract Labor Act of 1864.


U r b a n i z a t i o n

U R B A N I Z A T I O N

  • Growth of big cities.

  • Immigrants settling in cities

  • People moving from rural areas to cities for jobs in factories.


Shifts in population and employment 1860 1900

Shifts in Population and Employment, 1860-1900


Industrialization of america

F A C T O R Y W O R K


Piecework sweatshops

Piecework & Sweatshops

  • PIECEWORK -Workers paid a fixed amount for each item that they produced.

    • Garment workers

    • Cigar workers

  • SWEATSHOP- shop where employees worked for long hours and under poor working conditions.


Scientific management

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

  • Frederick Winslow Taylor

  • The Principles of Scientific Management

  • How to improve worker efficiency.

    • Break down different tasks and proper amount of time to complete

    • Productivity Increases

    • PROFIT$ increase


Division of labor

Division of Labor

  • Separation of the tasks of production.

  • Workers completed one task to produce an item.

  • Concept of the assembly line.

  • The end of the artisan.


Working conditions

Working Conditions


Gun foundry by john ferguson wier

GUN FOUNDRYby John Ferguson Wier


The working man burning on the stake of monopoly

The Working Man burning On the stake of Monopoly


Laborers

LABORERS

  • Ruled by the CLOCK

    • Start, breaks, stop.

  • Long working hours

    • No minimum work day.

  • Six-day work week

    • Only day off Sunday.

  • Dangerous and Unsafe.

    • No workers compensation for injuries.

  • Low wages.

    • No minimum wage

    • Competition for jobs


Child labor

Child Labor

Jacob Riis, Children of the Poor (1892)


Child labor1

Child Labor

  • Jacob Riis and Lewis Hine used photography to document the exploitation of child labor.


Child labor2

Child Labor

  • No laws prohibited use of child labor

  • 1880s approximately 5% of workforce was made up of children.

  • Families relied on income for children to survive.


W o r k e r s o r g a n i z e

W O R K E R S O R G A N I Z E


Uneven distribution of income the gilded age

Uneven distribution of IncomeThe Gilded Age

Wide gap between the wealthiest Americans and the working class and poor


S o c i a l i s m

S O C I A L I S M

  • Philosophy that promotes government/public control of business and the economy.

    • Government run industries

    • Government set production goals

    • Government set wages

  • Society, not individuals, control the wealth.

  • Advocate equal distribution of wealth to all.

Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto


Noble and holy order of the knights of labor

NOBLE and HOLY ORDER of the KNIGHTS of LABOR


Knights of labor

Knights of Labor

  • Formed Philadelphia, 1869

  • Admitted men and women

  • Skilled and unskilled workers.

  • Farmers and factory workers.

  • Recruited African Americans


Knights of labor1

Knights of Labor

  • Lead by Terrence Powderly

  • Promoted social reforms

    • Equal pay for equal work

    • Eight-hour work day

    • End child labor


A merican f ederation of l abor

AMERICAN FEDERATION of LABOR


Af of l

AF of L

  • Formed under leadership of Samuel Gompers in 1886

  • Skilled workers only

  • African Americans allowed but discouraged

  • Women not allowed

    • Lower wages.


American federation of labor

American Federation of Labor

  • “Bread & Butter” unionism.

  • Focus on wages, work hours, and working conditions

  • Political activity, education, strikes, boycotts and collective bargaining


I ndustrial w orkers of t he w orld

INDUSTRIAL WORKERS of THE WORLD

  • WOBBLIES

  • Formed in Chicago in 1905.

  • Lead by socialists and radicals

  • Focused on unskilled workers


Great railroad strike of 1877

GREAT RAILROAD STRIKE OF 1877

  • Began over wage cuts and increased work.

  • Railroad workers went on strike and rioted.

  • President Rutherford B. Hayes sent in troops to protect railroad property.

  • Eugene V. Debs established American Railway Union.

  • Lesson – Federal government would act on the behalf of business over labor and use the military against labor.


Haymarket massacre 1886

HAYMARKET MASSACRE1886

  • “Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest, eight hours for what we will.”

  • Labor demonstration at Haymarket Square in Chicago.

  • Anarchists involved

  • Bomb thrown into crowd killing a police officer and igniting a riot. Gunfire. Dozen killed.


Haymarket massacre 18861

HAYMARKET MASSACRE 1886

Knights of Labor blamed. Effectively ends that union.

Lesson- Public believes unions are dangerous and violent.


Homestead strike 1892

HOMESTEAD STRIKE 1892

  • Steel workers went on strike when Henry Frick decided to cut workers wages at Carnegie Steel.

  • Called in Pinkerton detectives against strikers.

  • Battle of Homestead fought between Pinkertons and the strikers.

  • Attempted murder of Frick by an anarchist was blamed on the strikers.

  • Public opinion turned against union

  • Lessons – public belief that unions were dangerous, violent and unAmerican.


Pullman strike 1894

PULLMAN STRIKE 1894

  • George Pullman

  • Pullman Company

  • Railroad cars

  • Pullman, Illinois

  • Pullman workers paid in company money

  • Cut wages to his workers

  • Raised rent


Industrialization of america

PULLMAN STRIKE

  • Workers protested, Pullman refused to negotiate.

  • Debs and A.R.U. supported.

  • Refused to work on trains that had Pullman cars

  • More than 260,000 railroad workers joined strike

  • Railroad owners asked for federal court to intervene.

  • Court ordered strike illegal because it interfered with free trade

  • President Grover Cleveland sent in federal troops to enforce court order

  • Lesson – Federal government side with business over labor.


American socialist party

The SOCIAL DEMOCRACY OF AMERICA

Eugene V. Debs

AMERICAN SOCIALIST PARTY


Labor hopelessly bound to the stake

Labor – “Hopelessly Bound To The Stake”


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