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REST, COMFORT, SLEEP. NUR 102 Module H Dianne Watts. REST. When people are at rest, they usually feel mentally relaxed, free from anxiety, and physically calm Rest does not imply inactivity. SLEEP. Sleep is a recurrent, altered state of consciousness that occurs for sustained periods

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NUR 102

Module H

Dianne Watts


  • When people are at rest, they usually feel mentally relaxed, free from anxiety, and physically calm

  • Rest does not imply inactivity


  • Sleep is a recurrent, altered state of consciousness that occurs for sustained periods

  • Sleep is a cyclical physiological process

    • Circadian rhythm

    • Biological clocks

Sleep Regulation

  • Sleep involves a sequence of physiological states maintained by the CNS

  • RAS ( reticular activating system) = wakefulness & BSR (bulbar synchronizing region) = sleep


  • NREM sleep = nonrapid eye movement - involves 4 stages

  • REM sleep = rapid eye movement

Stage 1: NREM

  • Lightest level of sleep

  • Lasts a few minutes

  • Easily aroused by sensory stimuli

  • Waken, person feels as though daydreaming has occurred

Stage 2: NREM

  • Period of sound sleep

  • Relaxation progresses

  • Arousal is still relatively easy

  • Stage lasts 10-20 minutes

  • Body functions, vital signs & metabolism, slow

Stage 3: NREM

  • Involves initial stages of deep sleep

  • Sleeper is difficult to arouse and rarely moves

  • Muscles are completely relaxed

  • Lasts 15-30 minutes

Stage 4: NREM

  • Very difficult to arouse sleeper

  • Deepest stage of sleep

  • If sleep loss has occurred, sleeper will spend considerable portion of night in this stage

  • Vital signs are significantly lower than during waking hours

  • Lasts approximately 15-30 minutes

  • Sleepwalking and enuresis may occur

Vivid, full-color dreaming may occur in REM.

Usually begins about 90 minutes after sleep has begun

Typified by autonomic response of rapidly moving eyes, fluctuating heart and resp rates, increased BP

Loss of skeletal muscle tone occurs

Gastric secretions increase

Very difficult to arouse

Duration of REM sleep increased with each cycle and averages 20 minutes


Functions/Purpose of Sleep

  • Restoration

    • Psychological

    • Physiological

      • Biological

      • Cognitive

  • Conservation of energy


  • Physical illness

  • Drugs and substances

  • Lifestyle

  • Emotional stress

  • Environment

  • Exercise and fatigue

  • Food and caloric intake








  • Chronic difficulty falling asleep

  • Frequent awakenings from sleep

  • Short sleep or nonrestorative sleep


  • Disorder in which the individual cannot breath and sleep at the same time

  • Lack of airflow through the nose and mouth for periods from 10 seconds to 1-2 minutes, there can be 10 or 15 to more than 100 respiratory events per hour of sleep

  • Three types: central, obstructive, and mixed


  • Caused by cessation of diaphragmatic and intercostal respiratory effort as a result of dysfunction of the brain’s respiratory control center

  • Impulse to breath fails, temporarily

  • Least common form


  • Most common form

  • Characterized by cessation of airflow despite the effort to breath

  • Occurs when muscles or structures of the oral cavity or throat relax during sleep

  • Usually have loud snoring


  • A CNS dysfunction of mechanisms that regulate the sleep and wake states

  • Falls asleep uncontrollably at inappropriate times

  • Treated with stimulants


  • S/S: blurred vision, fine motor clumsiness, decreased reflexes, slowed response time, decreased reasoning and judgment, cardiac arrhythmias

  • Psychological S/S: confusion, disorientation, increased sensitivity to pain, irritable, withdrawn, agitation, decreased motivation


  • Sleep problems that are more common in children, one common exception is bruxism (tooth grinding)

  • SIDS

  • Somnambulism(sleepwalking)

  • Nightmares

  • Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting)


  • Normal sleep pattern, restful? sufficient?

  • Self- reported

  • Sleep log

  • Bedtime routines

  • Bedtime environment

  • Client expectations


  • Physical sensation

  • Involves physical, emotional and cognitive components

  • Stimulus

Physiology of Pain

  • Transduction

  • Transmission

  • Perception

  • Modulation

Types of Pain

  • Acute

  • Chronic

  • Idiopatic

  • Inferred

    • nociceptive

    • neuropatic

Pain Assessment

  • Scales

  • Nonverbal pain indicators

  • Behavioral indicators

Pain Management

  • Pharmacological interventions

  • Non-pharmacological interventions

  • Barriers

  • Cultural considerations

  • Reassessment

Environmental factors affecting common and sleep

  • Comfortable room temperature

  • Proper ventilation

  • Minimal noise

  • Comfortable bed

  • Proper lighting

Promoting Bedtime Routines

  • Help client to relax in preparation for sleep

  • Avoid mental stimulation before bedtime

  • Relaxation exercises

  • Guided imagery

  • Good sleep hygiene

Sleep Hygiene

  • Avoid sleeping long hours during weekend or holiday

  • Bedroom should not be used for intensive studying, snacking, TV watching, or other nonsleep activity

  • Avoid worrisome thinking when going to bed

  • Avoid heavy meals for 3 hours before bedtime

Promoting comfort

  • Encourage client to wear loose-fitting nightwear

  • Instruct family on ways to position client and support dependent body parts to aid in muscle relaxation

  • Have client void before going to bed

  • Back massage

  • Keep bed linens dry


  • If client is at home, encourage physical activity during daytime

  • Avoid rigorous exercise at least several hours before bedtime

Control of noise in hospital

  • Close doors to client’s room

  • Keep doors to work areas closed

  • Reduce volume of nearby telephones and paging equipment

  • Avoid abrupt loud noises

  • Keep necessary conversations at low levels

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