Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328
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IBN TAYMIYYAH (1263-1328). Presented by Nurul Najwa Abd . Latiff Nadalmuhtadi Abd . Razak Triningsih Ngadimun Edited by Dr. Md. Mahmudul Hasan International Islamic University Malaysia 2011.

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IBN TAYMIYYAH (1263-1328)

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Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

IBN TAYMIYYAH(1263-1328)


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

Presented by

NurulNajwaAbd. Latiff

NadalmuhtadiAbd. Razak

TriningsihNgadimun

Edited by

Dr. Md. MahmudulHasan

International Islamic University Malaysia

2011


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

  • Ibn Taymiyyah’s full name is Taqī al-Dīn Abū al-Abbās Aḥmad ibn Abd al-Salām ibn Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad ibn Taymiyyah.

  • He was born in Harran, Turkey on 22 January 1263. He lived in Harran during the hard time of Mongol invasions.

  • Ibn Taymiyyah was a theologian and logician. His family was very well-known for religious scholarship.


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

He was a member of the school founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

Like Ahmad ibn Hanbal, he is referred to as "Sheikh ul-Islam,“ a title of superior authority on Islamic knowledge.

Scholarly achievements of ibn Taymiyyah's father, Shihab al-deen 'Abd al-Haleem ibn Taymiyyah (d. 1284), were also well-known.

Due to Mongol invasions, his family fled to Damascus in 1268 when he was still young. Damascus was then ruled by the Mamluks of Egypt.


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

At that time the Tatar hordes under Hulagu Khan were inflicting their barbaric onslaughts throughout the world of Islam - especially the Mesopotamium region. IbnTaymiyyah was only seven when the Tatars launched attacks on Harraan. Consequently, the populace left Harraan to seek refuge elsewhere.

IbnTaymiyyah was later trained by prominent scholars of his time. Among them a woman scholar named ZaynabbintMakki who taught him hadith. IbnTaymiyyah was always an industrious student and later he acquainted himself with secular and religious sciences and the study of Arabic literature and lexicography.


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

He became an expert in the great Arab grammarian Seebawayh's al-Kitaab which is regarded as the greatest authority on grammar and syntax. He also pointed out the errors therein.

He commanded knowledge of all the prose and poetry then available. Furthermore, he studied the history of both pre-Islamic Arabia and that of the post-Islamic period. He also learnt mathematics and calligraphy.


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

His scholarly zeal combined with his intense partisanship and hypergraphia led many contemporaries and later observers, most notably Ibn Battuta, to consider him mentally unbalanced.

Later, he became the representative of the Hanbali school of thought and studied jurisprudence from his father, and looked further in the Qur’an, Sunnah, and Sirah.

Ibn Taymiyyah had great love for tafsir (Qur’anic exegesis). He read over a hundred commentaries of the Qur’an.


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

He studied theology (kalam), philosophy, and Sufism. He used to refute the Christians. His student IbnQayyim Al-Jawziyya authored the famous poem “O Christ-Worshipper” which unapologetically examines the dogma of the Trinity propounded by many Christian sects.

He completed his studies when he was a teenager and at 19 he became a professor of Islamic studies.


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

He started giving fatwas on religious legal matters without following any of the traditional legal schools, the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'ee and Hanbali and he was well versed in Qur’anic studies, hadith, fiqh, theology, Arabic grammar and scholastic theology.

He defended the authentic prophetic traditions by arguments which, although taken from the Qur’an and the Sunnah, had been unfamiliar to people of his time.

The freedom of his polemics made him many enemies among the scholars of the traditional Orthodox Schools, who falsely accused him of all kinds of heretical beliefs.


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

He was imprisoned for several times due his outspokenness and for conflicting with the ijma of jurists and theologians of his day.

His troubles with government began when he went with a delegation of ulama to talk to Ghazan Khan of Iran to stop his attacks on the Muslims. It is reported that not one of the ulama dared to say anything to the Khan except Ibn Taymiyyah who said:

“You claim that you are Muslim and you have with you Muezzins, Muftis, Imams and Shaykhs but you invaded us and reached our country for what? While your father and your grandfather, Hulagu were non-believers, they did not attack and they kept their promise. But you promised and broke your promise.”


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

He was banned from having any books, papers and pen during his imprisonment.

Ibn Taymiyyah died while in prison on 22 Zulkaedah 728 AH (27 September 1328).

Al-Bazzar says, “Once the people had heard of his death, not a single person in Damascus who was able to attend the prayer and wanted to, remained until he appeared and took time out for it. As a result, the markets in Damascus were closed and all transactions of livelihood were stopped. Governors, heads, scholars, jurists came out. They say that none of the majority of the people failed to turn up, according to my knowledge - except three individuals; they were well known for their enmity for Ibn Taymiyyah and thus, hid away from the people out of fear for their lives."


Contributions

Contributions


I ordering the good and forbidding the evil

I. ORDERING THE GOOD AND FORBIDDING THE EVIL

  • a) He launched an intellectual attack on polytheism and innovations by way of intellectual discourse through direct debates, books and letters. He presented the opinions of his opponents only to refute their arguments.

  • b) He was against the Christian doctrine of Trinity and persuaded Christians to accept Islam. For example, he wrote a letter to the then Christian King of Cyprus to invite him to Islam.


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

c) His stances against the oppressive rulers. One of the well-known ones was his stance against Qazan, the ruler of the Tartars.

d) IbnTaymiyyahalso influenced the rulers to assume their role of commanding the good and forbidding the evil.


Ii his jihad against the tartars

II. HIS JIHAD AGAINST THE TARTARS

  • He clarified the reality of their condition and showed that it was an obligation to fight them.

  • He elucidated the causes for victory and explained that it was not impossible or difficult to achieve victory over them if the Muslims adopted the causes that achieve victory such as judging by Islamic law, putting an end to oppression, spreading justice and being sincere in one's intention when performing jihad in Allah’s cause.


Works

Works


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

The existing works of IbnTaymiyyah are great in number, despite the fact that a proportion of his works have perished.

He left a considerable body of work; 350 works listed by his student, IbnQayyimal Jawziyya and 500 by other student, al Dhahabi.

His works have been republished extensively in Syria, Egypt, Arabia, and Indiaand some of them have been translated into English.


Some of his works

Some of his works

Majmu’ al Fatwa al Kubra

Majmu' al-Fatawa—(Compilation of Fatawa)

al-Aqeedahal-Hamawiyyah—(The Creed to the People of Hamawiyyah)

Al-Aqidahal-Wasitiyyah—(The Creed)

al-Asmawa's-Sifaat—(Allah's Names and Attributes) Volumes 1–2

'al-Iman—(Faith)

KitabulWasitiyyah(Principles of Islamic Faith)

KitabIqtida al- Sirat al-Mustaqim(On the Necessity of the Straight Path)


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

al-Jawabas Sahih li man Baddala Din al-Masih(The Correct Response to those who have Corrupted the Deen (Religion) of Jesus Christ [A Muslim theologian's response to Christianity])—seven volumes, over a thousand pages.

as-Sarimal-Maslul ‘alaShatim

Fatawaal-Kubra

Fatawa al-Misriyyah

ar-Radd 'ala al-Mantiqiyyin (Refutation of Greek Logicians)

al-Uboodiyyah—(Subjection to God)


Al aqeedah al wasittiyah

al-Aqeedah al-Wasittiyah

  • This famous book was written in response to a request from a judge from Wasith asking him to write his views on theology in Islam.

  • In the first chapter Ibn Taymiyyah defines one group which he called Al Firq An-Najiyah (the group of survival).

  • He quotes a hadith that the Prophet (peace be upon him) says that there will be one group of his followers who will stay on the truth until the day of Resurrection.


Ibn taymiyyah 1263 1328

Chapter two contains the view of Ahlus-Sunnah wa'l Jamaah regarding the attributes of God based on the Qur’an and Sunnah without ta'teel (rejection), tamtsil (anthropomorphism), tahreef (changing His Attribute), and ta’yif (questioning His Attribute).

This book also contains the six parts of faith for Muslims, namely belief in God, His Angels, His Messengers, His Books, the Day of Resurrection, and taqdeer (pre-decree).


Al sarim al maslul ala shatim al rasul the drawn sword against those who insult the messenger

Al Sarim al-Maslul ‘ala Shatim al Rasul(The Drawn Sword against those who insult the Messenger)

  • The book was written in response to an incident in which IbnTaymiyyah heard a Christian insulting Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

  • It was written entirely by memory while he was in prison and quoting more than hundreds of references.


Some of his works translated into english

Some of his works translated into English

  • The Friends of God and the Friends of Satan

  • Kitab al Iman: The Book of Faith

  • Diseases of the Hearts and their Cures

  • The Relief from Distress

  • Fundamentals of Enjoining Good & Forbidding Evil

  • The Concise Legacy

  • The Goodly Word

  • The Madinan Way

  • Ibn Taymiyyah against Greek Logicians


Letters from prison

Letters from Prison


Letter to his mother

Letter to His Mother

  • In the letter IbnTaymiyyahapologises to his mother for his stay in Egypt, a stay he felt was necessary to educate the people.

  • Extract from the letter:

From Ahmad bin Taymiyyah to my dear and honourable Mother…

…our stay in Egypt is for an important issue. The abandonment of such a task leads to the corruption of our Deen and of our life.

Yet it was not our choice to be far from you. Had birds been able to carry us, we would have come to you. But the absent one has his reason; and had you been able to look deeply into the affairs of the Muslims, you would not choose for me another place to the one I am in now.


Letter to his brothers and students in damascus

Letter to his brothers and students in Damascus

  • His words in the letters are full of his love and advice to his beloved brothers and students.

  • He also extends forgiveness to those who conspired to imprison him.


Letter to the king of cyprus

Letter to the King of Cyprus

  • He wrote a letter to the then Christian King of Cyprus, inviting him to Islam and exposing the lies and corruption being committed by the priests and monks whilst they knew fully well that they were upon falsehood.

  • After mentioning the devoutness of the King, his love for knowledge and good conduct towards the people, IbnTaymiyyah then invites him to embrace Islam and adopt the correct belief. He does this in a gentle and exemplary manner addressing his intellect, and entrusts him to behave benevolently towards the Muslims in Cyprus, not to strive to change the religion of a single one of them.


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Ibn Taymiyyah is a distinguished figure and a great mujahid in Islam whose knowledge encompasses various field of studies.

  • His dedication in conveying the teachings of Islam, writing books and spreading knowledge inspires every Muslim to do the same.

  • May God help us benefit from his knowledge!


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