Sputtering. Eyal Ginsburg. WW46/02. Contents. Metallization structure PVD System Overview Sputtering: yield, conditioning, methods Film nucleation and growth. W Plug Via 2. M3. M2. M1. Silicon substrate. Contact & Metal Lines - SEM. Glue Layer (Cont. 1). Aluminum - General.
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Usually the metal line contains 4-5 layers:
Coating process that involves the transport of material from the target to the wafer. Atoms from the target are ejected as a result of momentum transfer between incident ions and the target. The particles traverse the vacuum chamber and are deposited on the wafer.
Grain size: 200m
Grain size: 45m
Ion energy Vs. sputter yield:
Typical compounds deposited by reactive sputtering:
Al grains - AFM photos.
What is the reason for the differences between these pictures ?