Life-Cycle Analysis. Applied to Social Enterprises and Co-operatives. Wales Institute for Research into Cooperatives. Adizes, I., (1999), Corporate Lifecycles: How and why Corporations Grow and Die and What to do about it (Prentice Hall, London).
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Applied to Social Enterprises and Co-operatives
Wales Institute for Research into Cooperatives
Bull, M. (2006), ‘Coming from the Heart (The Road is Long)’, paper presented to the 29th Annual ISBE conference, Cardiff, 29 October - 1 November.
A Charity and Company Limited by Guarantee focusing on public information and sharing information and raising public awareness about AIDS. Growing out the black community.
Company B is a Company Limited by Guarantee which aims to ‘enrich needy people’s lives through empowering disadvantaged groups such as people with disabilities, the elderly and people with mental health problems to live in the community in their own homes.’ It offers domiciliary care and is moving in minor repairs.
Registered as a charity it ‘provides a wide range of arts based training and opportunities for local residents of all ages who have or are at risk of experiencing mental ill-health and social exclusion.’
Adizes suggests that at this infant stage the organisation is vulnerable and in need of constant care. In all three cases the board of directors/trustees played a major part in the care of these businesses. In A, the board members were self elected through the instigation of the pressure group. The skills they brought to the table were health, social and public sector focused; the people were social care workers, community workers and public sector civil servants. In B, the board was initially largely representative of the local community and social care workers, whose insights and involvement in the start up of the business were brought together. In C, similarly, the board was initially made up of tenants from the locality, community workers and local social care workers.
Adizes calls stage 4 the adolescence stage, as a painful time for learning during the transition from a holistic team to that of delegation and professional management. In A it was noted that the rhetoric changed from a support network to a business. The focus provided by the strategic away days brought people together and the CEO stated the staff began to think of the project work as something more substantial and professional. In B the managers wrestled with company law and organisational development issues. In C it was considered fundamental to the delivery of their service that they remained focused on their core beliefs. The internal capabilities of these organisations were developing which was attributed to a number of factors.
A comment typical of the prime stage coming from B: “We have evolved into a self sustaining business, and not only that but one that takes into account the service user and a choice of individuality and the quality of service. We have evolved into that and I can see us being the flagship for services offered to people that are vulnerable and disabled in this City. I can see the vulnerable and disabled communities in this City have completely changed and got better because of the service we provide to them and that gives me great pleasure to be able to do that.”
Selling more products to more customers
Expanding activities along the supply chain
What do you have to pass on?
What models could you use?
Meister A. (1984) Participation, Associations, Development and Change. New Brunswick: Transaction.
Pressures toward degeneration include:
‘processes of regeneration have followed periods of degeneration’
Two main challenges to avoid degeneration: