Plagiarism and citation methods
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Plagiarism and Citation Methods. What is Plagiarism?. Occurs when someone deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source. The Importance of Intent.

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Plagiarism and Citation Methods

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Plagiarism and citation methods

Plagiarism and Citation Methods


What is plagiarism

What is Plagiarism?

  • Occurs when someone deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source


The importance of intent

The Importance of Intent

  • There’s a difference between intentionally presenting someone’s work as your own and misusing your sources


Some examples of deliberate use

Some Examples of Deliberate Use

  • Using papers from a paper mill

  • Presenting someone else’s paper as your own

  • Copying large sections of text from a source without attribution

  • These are considered serious academic offenses


Misuse of sources

Misuse of Sources

  • Academic conventions dictate certain methods for citing sources

  • These conventions must be learned and mistakes will happen

  • Careless or mistaken use of citation conventions is not plagiarism

  • As long as some effort is made to indentify source material, it will be treated as a stylistic issue


What is common knowledge

What is Common Knowledge?

  • Anything your reader could commonly know or that is available in general sources

  • This sort of knowledge will vary from discipline to discipline

  • Generally, any sort of knowledge you see commonly repeated in the research you are reading is considered common knowledge


What isn t common knowledge

What Isn’t Common Knowledge?

  • Highly specific statistics

    • Not all specifics are highly specific. Some are common knowledge e.g. the population of the US

  • Controversial information or ideas that contradict prevailing opinions

  • Ideas that appear in only a few of your sources or that are specific to one source


Examples of common knowledge

Examples of Common Knowledge

  • Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President

  • On Sep. 11th, Al-Qaeda attacked the United States

  • On average, Mars is 78 million km from the Earth


Not common knowledge

Not Common Knowledge

  • Some scholars believe Abraham Lincoln suffered from manic-depression

  • Currently, Al-Qaeda’s operational capacity has been reduced to the point where it is more a brand name than a centralized organization

  • Steven Hawking believes that colonizing Mars and other planets is the only way to preserve the human race


Other points where problems could arise

Other Points Where Problems Could Arise

  • Failing to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks

  • Also, if you quote someone, you must cite them and provide a reference


Summary vs paraphrase

Summary vs. Paraphrase

  • A paraphrase reports information from a source in the same number of words

  • A summary reports information from you source in a condensed form


Possible issues

Possible Issues

  • When summarizing or paraphrasing, you must restate the author’s ideas in your own language

  • If you half-copy the author’s sentences, you have misused your source

  • This could happen if you mix the author’s phrases with your own or if you plug synonyms into the author’s sentence structure


Example from hacker

Example from Hacker

  • Original text

    • In an effort to seek the causes of this disturbing trend, experts have pointed to the rise in childhood obesity that are unrelated to media.

      -Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, “The Role of Media in Childhood Obesity.” 2004. Print.


Problem borrows too many phrases

Problem: Borrows Too Many Phrases

  • The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation believes, experts have indicated a range of significant potential contributors to the rise in childhood obesity that are not linked to media (1).


Problem same structure

Problem: Same Structure

  • The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation believes, experts have identified (pointed to)a variety (range) of significant (important) factors causing (potential contributors to) a rise in childhood obesity that are not linked (unrelated) to media (1).


Solution to this problem

Solution to This Problem

  • Since it is easier to copy the source when it is in front of you, set the source aside and write a paraphrase or summary from memory

  • When you have finished your paraphrase or summary, check your source for accuracy and to make sure it isn’t too close to the original

  • Finally, if you are having a hard time, feel free to quote the source directly


Acceptable paraphrase

Acceptable Paraphrase

  • A report by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation claims sources other than the media were responsible for the childhood obesity crisis.


If you are in doubt

If You Are In Doubt

  • Consult your Hacker Style Manual

  • Send me an email or ask me in class


Purpose

Purpose

  • To aid you in dealing with the arguments of others

  • Provide concrete examples to back up your argument

  • To keep your argumentfocused and on task


Citation methods

Citation methods

  • For this paper you will most likely use two types of in-text citations:

    • Short quotes

    • Long quotes


Some general guidelines

Some General Guidelines

  • MLA requires that all signal phrases introducing a citation be in the present tense

    • Ken Byron contends…

    • The unnamed narrator in “Adams” believes…


Follow the author date format

Follow the author/date format

  • The author’s name and the page number of the quotation should appear in any in-text citation.

  • Two main ways of doing this

    • George Saunders emphasizes America’s subservience to advertising in “In Persuasion Nation” when a grandfather chops his grandson into pieces at the behest of a bag of Doritos and screams at the mutilated body “do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips with a ton of salt and about nine coloring agents” (161)?


Author name and page

Author Name and Page #

  • The grandfather turns to his grandson’s mutilated body and yells “Do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips, with a ton of salt and nine coloring agents” (Saunders 161)?


Basic formatting

Basic Formatting

  • The titles of longer works (movies, books, edited collections, albums, etc.) should be italicized, e.g. Huckleberry Finn, Inception, Kind of Blue.

  • The titles of shorter works (short stories, essays, song titles, poems, etc.) should be in quotation marks, e.g. “Barn Burning”, “Shootings”, “I Sing The Body Electric”, “Stairway to Heaven”.


Short quotations

Short Quotations

  • Things you need to include:

    • Author

    • Page number

    • Signal phrase


Examples

Examples

  • George Saunders emphasizes America’s subservience to advertising in “In Persuasion Nation” when a grandfather chops his grandson into pieces at the behest of a bag of Doritos and screams at the mutilated body “do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips with a ton of salt and about nine coloring agents” (161)?

  • The grandfather turns to his grandson’s mutilated body and yells “Do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips, with a ton of salt and nine coloring agents” (Saunders 161)?


  • Long quotes

    Long Quotes

    • Use when your quote is longer than 40 words

    • Omit quotation marks

    • Start on a new line indented five spaces from the left margin

    • Type the entire quotation from the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph

    • Maintain double-spacing throughout


    Example

    Example

    • Ken Byron develops an extensive scale for judging the gender of every person in America:

      Here’s how it works: Say we determine that a man is an 8 on the manly scale, with 10 being most manly of all and 0 basically a neuter. And say we determine that his fiancee is a -6 on the manly scale, with -10 being most Fem of all. Calculating the difference between the man’s rating and the woman’s rating– the Gender Differential– we see that this proposed union is not, in fact, a Samish-Sex Marriage (Saunders 67-68).


    Reference page

    Reference page

    • Some resources:

      • Son Of Citation Machine

      • Easy Bib

      • Amacite

        These will automatically generate a references page for

        you. Just make sure to plug in your sources correctly.


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