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Welcome to PS410!. Today’s Seminar Topics: Greetings and Introductions. Welcome to PS410!. Today’s Seminar Topics: Greetings and Introductions Syllabus. Welcome to PS410!. Today’s Seminar Topics: Greetings and Introductions Syllabus Project Overview. Welcome to PS410!.

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Welcome to ps410

Welcome to PS410!

  • Today’s Seminar Topics:

    • Greetings and Introductions


Welcome to ps4101

Welcome to PS410!

  • Today’s Seminar Topics:

    • Greetings and Introductions

    • Syllabus


Welcome to ps4102

Welcome to PS410!

  • Today’s Seminar Topics:

    • Greetings and Introductions

    • Syllabus

    • Project Overview


Welcome to ps4103

Welcome to PS410!

  • Today’s Seminar Topics:

    • Greetings and Introductions

    • Syllabus

    • Project Overview

    • History of Assessment


Welcome to ps4104

Welcome to PS410!

  • Today’s Seminar Topics:

    • Greetings and Introductions

    • Syllabus

    • Project Overview

    • History of Assessment

    • Ethical Guidelines


Synchronous and flex seminars

Synchronous and Flex Seminars


Course description

Course Description

  • Overview of strategies & tools used for screening and assessment of various age groups

  • Brief overview of history of assessment

  • Ethical considerations

  • Examines assessment instruments & techniques

  • Interpreting results/data


Grading criteria

Grading Criteria


Grading timetable late policy

Timetable:

All work will be graded within 5 days of their due date

Discussion Boards will be updated each week

Late projects will be graded within 5 days of their submission

Extenuating Circumstances: Please keep me informed. Contact me if you have a situation that prevents you from turning in work on time. We will try to work something out:)

Grading Timetable & Late Policy


Incompletes

Incompletes

  • Incompletes allow students limited additional time to complete coursework after the end of the term

  • To be considered, you must have 75% of coursework completed

  • Talk to me - we will try to work something out:)


Tutoring

Tutoring

  • Remember, Kaplan has many student supports:

    • Kaplan University Writing Center

    • Kaplan Library


Discussion boards netiquette

Discussion Boards

A forum to share insights and ask questions about course work

Allows us to build a sense of community in an online venue

Instructor interacts with students

Netiquette: Web Etiquette

Formal writing style

Respectful & polite manner

Constructive comments

Discussion Boards & Netiquette


A word about rubrics

A Word About Rubrics

  • A rubric is a grading criteria that insures consistency and standardization


A word about rubrics1

A Word About Rubrics

  • A rubric is a grading criteria that insures consistency and standardization

  • The rubrics found in the syllabus can be used as a checklist as you work through the discussion boards and projects


A word about rubrics2

A Word About Rubrics

  • A rubric is a grading criteria that insures consistency and standardization

  • The rubrics found in the syllabus can be used as a checklist as you work through the discussion boards and projects

  • Discussion Board tip: Use your discussion topic instructions as a checklist to insure that you address each element - a good way to make sure you get the points you want!


Final project

Final Project

  • Culmination of all you’ve learned


Final project1

Final Project

  • Culmination of all you’ve learned

  • Due at the end of Unit 9


Final project2

Final Project

  • Culmination of all you’ve learned

  • Due at the end of Unit 9

  • Analyze case study as marriage family therapist


Final project3

Final Project

  • Culmination of all you’ve learned

  • Due at the end of Unit 9

  • Analyze case study as marriage family therapist

  • Describe strategies for screening & assessment (Essay form)


Final project4

Final Project

  • Culmination of all you’ve learned

  • Due at the end of Unit 9

  • Analyze case study as marriage family therapist

  • Describe strategies for screening & assessment (Essay form)

  • Select appropriate assessment


Final project5

Final Project

  • Culmination of all you’ve learned

  • Due at the end of Unit 9

  • Analyze case study as marriage family therapist

  • Describe strategies for screening & assessment (Essay form)

  • Select appropriate assessment

  • Consider ethical implications/issues


Final project6

Final Project

  • Culmination of all you’ve learned

  • Due at the end of Unit 9

  • Analyze case study as marriage family therapist

  • Describe strategies for screening & assessment (Essay form)

  • Select appropriate assessment

  • Consider ethical implications/issues

  • Write assessment report modeled after example in text


History of testing and assessment chapter 1

History of Testing and Assessment - Chapter 1

  • Details and Differences: Assessments and Tests

    • Assessment: Broad array of evaluative procedures - can be formal or informal

    • Tests: Instruments that yield scores based upon collected data. Tests are a subset of assessment.


History of testing and assessment chapter 11

History of Testing and Assessment - Chapter 1

  • Standard of Multiple Assessment: One assessment is not enough to understand an individual - information from many assessments increases the accuracy of the diagnosis.


Assessment procedures

Assessment Procedures

  • Informal Assessment

  • Observation

  • Rating Scales

  • Classification Methods

  • Records & Personal Docs.

  • Performance Assessment

  • Environmental Assessment

  • Ability Testing

  • (Achievement/Aptitude)

  • Readiness

  • Survey Battery

  • Diagnostic

  • Intellectual & Cognitive

  • Functioning

  • Cognitive Ability

  • Special Aptitude

  • Multiple Aptitude

  • Personality Testing

  • Objective Tests

  • Projective Tests

  • Interest Inventories

Assessment

Procedures

The Clinical Interview


The test it s ancient history

The Test - It’s Ancient History!

  • China - 2200 B.C.

    • To determine whether his officials were fit for office, the Chinese emperor had them examined every third year.

    • By1370, the tests had become increasingly difficult. Those who passed many days and nights in a small, isolated booth were subjected to longer stays in similar conditions. Survivors went on to the final level of testing. If they passed, they “became eligible for public office.” This system of testing was “abolished in 1906.”

    • [Reference: The History of Psychological Testing, Ch. 1A, p. 4, http://www.ablongman.com/partners_in_psych/PDFs/Gregory/gregory_ch01.pdf


The test it s ancient history1

The Test - It’s Ancient History!

  • Greece – 428-327 B.C.

    • Assessment of intellect and physical ability when screening for state service.


Pioneers of modern assessment

Jean Esquirol (1772-1840) -French Psychiatrist

Used language to identify intelligence - a precursor of “verbal IQ”

First to differentiate between mental deficiency and insanity

Wrote Des maladies mentales, the first book to espouse an objective and rational view of mental disorders

[http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/esquirol.shtml}

Pioneers of Modern Assessment

Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine


Pioneers of modern assessment1

Pioneers of Modern Assessment

  • Edouard Seguin (1812-1880) - French Physician

    • Worked with children with mental retardation in France and the U.S.

    • Pioneer in the education of the mentally retarded - which can be considered the forerunner of special education

    • Developed form board to increase motor control - precursor of “performance IQ.”

      [http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Edouard_/seguin]


Pioneers of modern assessment2

Pioneers of Modern Assessment

  • Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) - Darwin’s half-cousin.

    • Intrigued by differences among people

    • Sensory motor responses and their relationship to intelligence

    • Development of the statistical concept of the correlation coefficient

    • Word association tests to study the unconscious mind

      [http://galton.org/]

Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine


Pioneers of modern assessment3

Pioneers of Modern Assessment

  • Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) - German

    • “Father of Experimental Psychology”

    • New domain of science - “Physiological Psychology”

    • In 1875, developed one of the1st psychological laboratories that used experimental research

    • Introspection - Wundt’s primary tool of experimental psychology

      [http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/wundt.shtml]


Pioneers of modern assessment4

Pioneers of Modern Assessment

  • James Cattell (1860-1944)

    • Doctoral student under Wundt

    • Brought statistics to mental testing

    • Coined term, “mental test”

    • Believed that psychology had to embrace the use of quantitative methods

      [http://www.indiana.edu/~jcattell.shtml]


Pioneers of modern assessment5

Pioneers of Modern Assessment

  • G. S. Hall (1844-1924)

    • Founder & first president of APA

    • Set up lab at Johns Hopkins University

    • Primary interests in evolutionary psychology and child development


Emergence of ability tests testing in the cognitive domain

Emergence of Ability Tests:Testing in the Cognitive Domain

  • Alfred Binet (1857-1911)

    • Critical of the way children with “mental deficiency” were diagnosed

    • Binet and Theophile Simon developed scale that would measure higher mental processes - their observations were used to develop 1st modern intellegence test


Emergence of ability tests testing in the cognitive domain1

Emergence of Ability Tests:Testing in the Cognitive Domain

  • Lewis Terman (1877-1956)

    • Stanford University

    • Based upon data he had gathered on Binet and Simon’s scale on hundreds of children, Terman revised the Binet and Simon scale - know as the Stanford-Binet

    • First to use, in his test, the ratio of chronological age to mental age = IQ (mental age/chronological age


Emergence of ability tests testing in the cognitive domain2

Emergence of Ability Tests:Testing in the Cognitive Domain

  • Neuropsychology - “The study of brain function as it relates to behavior”

    • Interest in brain injury as it relates to behavior has been evident since Egyptian times

    • If changes in brain function occur due to disease or injury, a neuropsychological assessment is recommended - may include intellegence test


Group tests of ability

Group Tests of Ability

  • Standardized directions and trained examiners made the jump from individualized tests to group tests possible

  • WWI and the need to test large number of recruits quickly, became a catalyst for change


Group tests of ability1

Group Tests of Ability

  • Robert Yerkes: President of APA

    • Chaired committee to create test for new recruits during WWI

    • Created Army Alpha (1st modern group test) in 4 months

    • Tested 1.7 million plus recruits in less than 2 years


Group tests of ability2

Group Tests of Ability

  • Army Beta was developed to mitigate non-English speaking and non-reading recruits

    • A language-free test that used form boards, mazes, and non-verbal communication (pantomime)

  • Army Alpha & Army Beta, and like tests, assessed the the academic potential of the person tested


Group tests of ability3

Group Tests of Ability

  • Scholastic Aptitude Test

    • Developed by the Educational Testing Service

  • James Bryant Conant - President of Harvard

    • Believed in a classless society

    • Hoped that tests such as the SAT could promote equality in society & education by identifying individual ability

    • Some believe that tests such as the SAT worked to separate social classes


Group tests of ability achievement tests in schools

Group Tests of Ability:Achievement Tests in Schools

  • Edward Thorndike (1874-1949)

    • Developed Stanford Achievement Test (1923)

    • Academic performance test for school students


Group tests of ability vocational counseling

Group Tests of Ability:Vocational Counseling

  • Frank Parsons (1909/1989) - Leader in vocational counseling

  • Vocational Counseling Process:

    • 1. Acquiring self-knowledge

    • 2. Acquiring knowledge of the world of work

    • 3. Finding a suitable match through a process called “true reasoning”

    • Measures likes and dislikes and ability

    • GATB: Measures ability in multiple, specific areas


Personality tests affective realm

Personality Tests (Affective Realm)

  • J. B. Miner

    • Developed one of first interest inventories for helping high school students select occupations

    • Miner thought his test was only one component of a thorough assessment that would also include interviews with vocational counselors


Personality tests affective realm1

Personality Tests (Affective Realm)

  • Edward Strong (1884-1963)

    • Developed the Strong Vocational Interest Blank

    • “One of the most widely used instruments in career counseling”


Personality tests affective realm2

Personality Tests (Affective Realm)

  • Objective Personality Assessment

    • Emil Kraeplin: Early word association test

    • Woodworth Personal Data Sheet: Developed during WWI to determine if “soldiers were emotionally unfit for combat”

      • Consists of questions in which you underline “Yes” or “No”

      • Precursor of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

        (http://www.britannica.com/Ebchecked/topic/647729/Woodworth-Personal-Data-Sheet)


Personality testing affective realm

Personality Testing (Affective Realm)

  • Projective Testing: Involves presenting a stimulus in effort to “tap into the unconscious mind”

    • Carl Jung (1875-1961)

      • Early word association tests designed to identify mental illness

      • Coined term, “complex”: Individual’s responses that pointed to a problem area in their lives


Personality testing affective realm1

Personality Testing (Affective Realm)

  • Herman Rorschach (1884-1922)

    • Jung’s student

    • Developed Rorschach Inkblot test

    • Believed that person’s reactions to the inkblot forms revealed his/her unconscious life


Personality testing affective realm2

Personality Testing (Affective Realm)

  • Henry Murray

    • Developed Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

    • TAT is designed to “evaluate a person’s patterns of thought, attitudes, observational capacity, and emotional responses to sets of cards that portray human figures in a variety of settings and situations”

      [http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Thematic-Apperception-Test.html]


Informal assessment procedures

Informal Assessment Procedures

  • Informal assessment procedures are often designed by the user to meet a particular testing situation

    • Situational Test - tests the ability to handle and respond to “real life” situations

    • Clinical Interview - proved useful for diagnosis using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, developed by APA


Informal assessment procedures1

Informal Assessment Procedures

  • Informal Assessments that became popular in the 1960s and ‘70s:

    • Observation

    • Rating Scales

    • Classification Techniques

    • Record Review

    • Personal Documents

  • Performance-based assessment has become popular in recent years


Modern use of assessment procedures

Modern Use of Assessment Procedures

  • Assessment instruments are prevalent in all areas of society

  • Categories include:

    • 1. Testing in the Cognitive Domain (ability testing)

    • 2. Testing in the Affective Domain (personality assessment)

    • 3. Informal Assessment Procedures


Ethical guidelines for testing and assessment

Ethical Guidelines for Testing and Assessment

  • The American Counseling Association (ACA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) have created ethical codes that address issues of testing and assessment.

  • Ethical Codes: Professional guidelines for appropriate behavior


Ethical guidelines for testing and assessment1

Ethical Guidelines for Testing and Assessment

  • The ACA and APA guidelines include these broad categories:

    • 1.Choose appropriate assessments

    • 2. Competence in use of instruments

    • 3. Confidentiality: Protect client information

    • 4. Cross-cultural sensitivity: Protect client from discrimination & bias

    • 5. Informed consent: Permission given by client after process explained

    • 6. Invasion of privacy

    • 7. Proper diagnosis: Use appropriate assessments for accurate diagnosis

    • 8. Release of test data: Requires client consent

    • 9. Test administration: Use established and standardized methods

    • 10. Test security: Ensure integrity of test content and test itself

    • 11. Test scoring and interpretation: Consider problems with tests


Choosing appropriate assessments

Choosing Appropriate Assessments

  • Assessments should show “test worthiness”:

    • 1. Reliability (consistency)

    • 2. Validity (measures what it is supposed to)

    • 3. Cross-cultural Fairness

    • 4. Practicality


Competence in use of tests

Competence in Use of Tests

  • Professionals must demonstrate adequate knowledge and training in administering an assessment

  • APA (1954) adopted a three-tier system for establishing user qualifications, which they have reevaluated in recent years and, as a result, designed more stringent guidelines.


Apa s three tier system

APA’s Three-tier System

  • Level A tests: Administered, scored, and interpreted by responsible nonpsychologists who have read the test manual & are familiar with the purpose of testing (Educational achievement tests)

  • Level B tests: Requires technical knowledge of test construction & use, along with appropriate advanced coursework in psychology and related courses

  • Level C tests: Requires advanced degree in psychology, or licensure as a psychologist, and advanced training/supervised experience in the particular test.


Code of fair testing practices

Code of Fair Testing Practices

  • 1. Standards for Qualifications of Test Users

  • 2. Responsibilities of Users of Standardized Tests

  • 3. Standards for Multicultural Assessment

  • 4. Code of Fair Testing Practices

  • 5. Rights & Responsibilities of Test Takers

  • 6. Competencies in Assessment and Evaluation for School Counselors

  • 7. Standards for Educational & Psychological Testing


Ethical decision making

Ethical Decision Making

  • Moral Model of Decision-Making (Remley & Herlihy):

    • 1. Autonomy - Respecting client’s right of

    • self-determination & freedom of choice

    • 2. Nonmaleficence - “Do no harm”

    • 3. Beneficence - Promoting the well-being

    • of others and society

    • 4. Justice - Equal & fair treatment to all

    • 5. Fidelity - Loyalty & faithfulness to

    • commitments in helping relationship

    • 6. Veracity - Deal honestly with the client


Ethical decision making1

Ethical Decision-Making

  • Practical, problem-solving model (Corey, Corey, & Callanan)

    • 1. Identify problem or dilemma

    • 2. Identify potential issues involved

    • 3. Review relevant ethical guidelines

    • 4. Know applicable laws & regulations

    • 5. Obtain consultation

    • 6. Consider possible & probable courses of action

    • 7. Enumerate the consequences of decisions

    • 8. Decide on what appears to be best course of action


Legal issues in assessment

Legal Issues in Assessment

  • Laws about Testing: Intended to protect examinee:

    • 1. Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)

    • 2. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

    • 3. Freedom of Information Act

    • 4. Civil Rights Acts

    • 5. Americans with Disabilities Act

    • 6. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act

    • 7. Carl Perkins Act


Professional issues

Professional Issues

  • Professional Associations:

  • Association for Assessment in Counseling and Education (AACE), Division of ACA

    • Organization of counselors, educators, and other professionals

    • Provides leadership, training, & research in creation, development, production, and use of assessment and diagnostic techniques


Professional issues1

Professional Issues

  • Professional Associations:

  • Division 5 of the American Psychological Association: Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics

    • Promotes high standards in research and practical application of psychological assessment, evaluation, measurement, and statistics


Accreditation standards of professional associations

Accreditation Standards of Professional Associations

  • Accreditation Bodies: Set curriculum standards for graduate programs:

    • 1. American Psychological Association (APA)

    • 2. National Association of School Psychologists (NASP)

    • 3. Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP)


Forensic evaluations

Forensic Evaluations

  • Forensic evaluations include:

    • 1. Use of specific tests appropriate for the situation

    • 2. Interviewing techniques that are focused on the goals of the court case

    • 3. Knowledge of ethical and legal issues relevant to expert testimony and the case

    • 4. Knowledge of how to write forensic reports that will be used in court


Certification as forensic evaluator

Certification as Forensic Evaluator

  • The National Board of Forensic Evaluators (NBFE) certifies counselors & social workers as forensic health evaluators

  • American Board of Forensic Psychology (ABFP)

    • Psychologists interested in this field can do residencies in forensic psychology or four years of postdoctoral forensic experience to become a diplomat in the ABFP


Assessment as a holistic process

Assessment as a Holistic Process

  • “Assessment is a snapshot; clients continually change.”


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