Direct current (dc) generators
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Direct current (dc) generators. Split ring (commutator) does the job of reversing polarity every half cycle. Motional emf – conductor moving in a constant magnetic field. Generators as Energy Converters. Generator does not produce electric energy out of nowhere – it is supplied by whatever

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Direct current (dc) generators

Split ring (commutator) does the job of reversing polarity every half cycle

Generators as Energy Converters field

Generator does not produce electric energy

out of nowhere – it is supplied by whatever

entity that keeps the rod moving. All it does

is to convert it to a different form, namely to

electric energy (current)

Significance of the minus sign – Lenz’s Law field

Induced current has such direction that its own flux opposes the change of the external magnetic flux

Magnetic field of the induced current wants to decrease the total flux

Magnetic field of the induced current wants to increase the total flux

Correspondingly, magnetic forces oppose the motion – consistently with conservation of energy!

Lenz’s Law – the direction of any magnetic induction

effect as to oppose the cause of the effect

Lenz’s Law – a direct consequence of the energy conservation principle

We cannot change magnitude of the velocity of a charged particle in a static magnetic field B


We can do it in a time-varying magnetic field B(t) – the resulting electric field E(t) will do the job

And that’s indeed how particles are accelerated in betatrons!

Space Weather Causes Currents in Electric Power Grids particle in a static magnetic field

Electric currents in Earth's atmosphere can induce currents the planet's crust and oceans. During space weather disturbances, currents associated with the aurora as large as a million-amperes flow through the ionosphere at high latitudes. These currents are not steady but are fluctuating constantly in space and time - produce fluctuating magnetic fields that are felt at the Earth's surface - cause currents called GICs (ground induced currents) to flow in large-scale conductors, both natural (like the rocks in Earth's crust or salty ocean water) and man-made structures (like pipelines, transoceanic cables, and power lines).

Some rocks carry current better than others. Igneous rocks do not conduct electricity very well so the currents tend to take the path of least resistance and flow through man-made conductors that are present on the surface (like pipelines or cables). Regions of North America have significant amounts of igneous rock and thus are particularly susceptible to the effects of GICs on man-made systems. Currents flowing in the ocean contribute to GICs by entering along coastlines. GICs can enter the complex grid of transmission lines that deliver power through their grounding points. The GICs are DC flows. Under extreme space weather conditions, these GICs can cause serious problems for the operation of the power distribution networks by disrupting the operation of transformers that step voltages up and down throughout the network.