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Project presentation. Geo-Center project, financed by GEUS and AU 2011- 2014 Project title: “Iodine in the hydrological cycle in Denmark: implications for human health“ People involved in the project: Søren Munch Kristiansen (AU, Department of Geoscience)

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Project presentation

Project presentation

  • Geo-Center project, financed by GEUS and AU

  • 2011- 2014

  • Project title:

    “Iodine in the hydrological cycle in Denmark: implications for human health“

  • People involved in the project:

  • Søren Munch Kristiansen (AU, Department of Geoscience)

  • Birgitte Hansen, Vibeke Ernstsen, Brian Sørensen & Kim Esbensen (GEUS)

  • Why iodine is interesting

    Why iodine is interesting?

    Medical aspect

    • essential component of the thyroid hormones

    • low iodine intake:

      • variety of IDD – mental retardation, goitre, hypothyroidism, etc;

  • prevention – fortification of table salt and salt in bread(dk mandatory since 2000/2001)

    • high iodine intake:

      • tolerable upper intake level

      • associated with the correction of iodine deficiency or/and chronically high intake – iodine induced hyperthyroidism, elevated goitre and subclinical hypothyroidism

  • Geochemical aspect

    • iodine in groundwater (= tap water)

  • mapping regional/temporal variations

  • not included in the monitoring programs of the waterworks;

  • data mainly from GRUMO wells; some studies

    • understanding the involved processes

    • source/sources of iodine in the groundwater in Denmark

  • Previous studies

    Andersen, Petersen, Lauberg “

    Iodine in drinking water is bound in humic substances“ 2002

    Previous studies

    Rasmussen, Larsen, Ovesen

    “Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark” 2000

    Pedersen, Laurberg, Nøhr, Jørgensen, Andersen

    "Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas" 1999

    Available groundwater data

    Available Groundwater data

    Status December 2011: 2562 samples

    • Data quality assessment

      • Different methods

      • Unit mistakes

    • Statistical analysis of the data

    • Picking up interesting areas for case-studies

    Number of Iodine* samples

    Poster Bari

    Multivariate data analysis

    Multivariate Data analysis


    finding outliers

    grouping due to date, method, etc.

    exploring the relations/correlations between the different data


    Other constituents

    Hypothesis: there is correlation between iodine and the other constituents or some of them

    • Hypotheses:

    • Iodine originates from the rock/sediment

    • sea water intrusion

    • upward diffusion of old saltwater


    Distance to coastline

    Distance to major faults


    Iodine speciation

    Storage experiment:

    How the Iodide concentration in groundwater sample is affected by:

    storage conditions – 5ºC,10ºC, freezer

    storage period

    Iodine speciation

    Important for the geochemical understanding of the Iodine cycle

    Inorganic iodine


    Total iodine

    Statistically significant difference

    Lab methods development and testing:

    Inorganic Iodine – IC

    Total Iodine – ICP-MS


    Freezer – indications that the composition of the water was different; new experiment needed in order to make conclusions

    Case studies

    Case Studies




    Source - explanation for the observed concentrations

    Iodine speciation

    Geochemical analysis

    0 meq/l








    Future plans and possible collaboration

    Future plans and possible collaboration

    Medical aspect

    Geochemical aspect

    In progress:

    • Case studies

    • Multivariate analysis

      of Jupiter data

    National study on Iodine in drinking water:

    • Sampling from waterworks wells

    • Reflecting the different geology and the size of the waterworks

    • Mapping of Iodine concentrations in drinking water

      • Estimation of the dietary iodine intake in Denmark

      • Combined study with data from medical registers

    Possible collaboration

    Project presentation

    Thank you for the attention

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