In Class Exercise. Break into groups of three. We are going to play a trivia game. 1 person will ask another 5 questions, 1 person will observe The group will determine which person is the Quizmaster, the contestant, and the observer by playing rock – paper – scissors.
Facial expressions are one of the first things we notice about another person and a rich source of information about underlying emotion.
Research suggests that there are at least 6 basic facial expressions.
What are these babies experiencing?
Basic facial displays now show up in some other interesting ways. Electronic communication is often augmented with emotion markers:
‘-) Wink ;- ) Incredulity :-o Surprise
:-, Smirk :-| Disgust =8-0 Shock
: - ) Smile :-X Kiss
: - ( Frown :*) Clowning around
|- ( Anger or :-J Tongue in cheek Sleepy
Women are better encoders and decoders of nonverbal cues. Why?
Attribution: Uncovering the Stable Causes of Behavior
Often we wish to know more than the temporary causes of a person’s behavior.
We wish to know if behavior is due to enduring characteristics of the person that might allow predicting behavior in the future.
Two prominent theories have been developed to describe how we engage in this attribution process.
1) The Theory of Correspondent Inferences(Jones and Davis)
According to this theory, we rely on observable behaviors to make inferences about the corresponding underlying traits that produced them.
e.g.: if someone did a ‘kind’ behavior we may then label them as a ‘kind’ person.
2) The Covariation Model(Kelley)
Kelley offers another view of the attribution process, one that argues that a basic distinction that we need to make is between internal causes and external causes.
Example: John smiled at Sarah on Tuesday.
Why did John smile? Is it something about John? Something about Sarah? Something about Tuesday?
Jenna got angry with her date, Josh, on Friday.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The actor-observer bias refers to the tendency to make dispositional attributions for the behavior of others but situational attributions for our own behavior.
The Self-Serving Bias
The tendency to take more credit for success than is warranted and to deny blame for failure more than is warranted.
This bias is responsible for the positive illusions that most people have about their abilities and prospects.
The Self-Serving Bias
One interesting example of the self-serving bias is the above-average effect.
Attributions are made very quickly. We gather information and form first impressions very rapidly.
You never get a second chance to make a first impression . . .