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Children s poverty and morbidity override aids related orphanhood in predicting stigma and bullying
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Children's poverty and morbidity override AIDS-related orphanhood in predicting stigma and bullying. Pantelic, M., Langhaug, L., Moonga F.,Wespi, K., Ammann, P., and Gschwend, A. background. UNICEF 2012 55,100 orphans in sub-Saharan Africa 15,000 HIV/AIDS-related orphans.

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Pantelic, M., Langhaug, L., Moonga F.,Wespi, K., Ammann, P., and Gschwend, A.

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Children s poverty and morbidity override aids related orphanhood in predicting stigma and bullying

Children's poverty and morbidity override AIDS-related orphanhood in predicting stigma and bullying

Pantelic, M., Langhaug, L., Moonga F.,Wespi, K., Ammann, P., and Gschwend, A.


Background

background

UNICEF 2012

  • 55,100 orphans in sub-Saharan Africa

  • 15,000 HIV/AIDS-related orphans


Multiple adversities facing orphans

Multiple adversities facing orphans


Repercussions of stigmatization and bullying

REPeRCUSSIONSOF stigmatization and bullying

Boyes & Cluver 2013, Boyes et al. 2014, Geel et al. 2014


Research rationale

Research rationale

  • Little known about what factors stigmatize orphans

    • Existing research identifies AIDS-related orphanhood as a key stigmatizing marker (Boyes & Cluver 2013)

    • Limited programmatic implications

    • Other markers?

  • Interventions should be sensitive to the needs of orphans


Research question

Research question

  • How are 3 stigma markers associated with perceived stigma and bullying victimization in Zambian orphans?

Poverty

Morbidity

AIDS-related orphanhood


Method

METHOD

  • Cross-sectional survey (n=957)

    • Swiss Academy for Development

  • Total population sampling of orphaned adolescents (n=484)

    • ChildFund Zambia registers

  • 5 communities in Kafue District, Zambia

  • Ethics approval obtained from University of Zambia

  • Same-sex face-to-face interviews


Measures

measures

  • Stigma: brief Stigma-by-Association scale (Boyes et al. 2012)

  • Bullying victimization: adapted Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale (Mynard & Joseph 2000)

  • Food insecurity: # of days without food in the past week (Makame et al. 2002, Cluver et al. 2009)

  • Physical health: past month frequency of somatic complaints

  • AIDS-related orphanhood: verbal autopsy (WHO 2005)


Descriptive results orphan sample

Descriptive results (orphan sample)

  • 15 % lost parent due to HIV/AIDS

  • 25 % reported hunger for 2+ days in past wk

  • 56 % reported 3+ somatic complaints in past mo

  • 72 % reported any perceived stigma

  • 89 % reported any bullying victimization


Results

results


Results1

RESULTS

  • Together, poor health and food insecurity accounted for:

    • 10.3 % (R2 change=.103) of the variation in perceived stigma

    • 9.1 % (R2 change = .091) of the variation in bullying victimization


Results2

results

Orphan stigma and bullying scores by food insecurity and health


Summary implications

SUMMARY & IMPLICATIONS

  • AIDS-related orphanhood NOTassociated with stigma or bullying victimization in our sample

  • Extreme poverty and morbidity were associated with stigma and bullying of orphans.

  • Potential for:

    • Poverty alleviation and health promotion programs

    • Whole-school approaches (Vreeman and Carroll 2007)


Summary implications1

SUMMARY & IMPLICATIONS

Encouraging note:

We might not be able to change parental cause of death, but we can affect child poverty and health.


Thank you

Thank You


Post hoc confirmatory analysis

Post hoc confirmatory analysis

  • Do orphan poverty and ill health mediate a link between AIDS-related orphanhood and stigma and bullying?

  • Univariate regressions to check whether AIDS-related orphanhood predicts stigma and/or bullying independently of orphan poverty and orphan health

  • Again, no associations between AIDS-related orphanhood and the two outcomes were found

  • No mediation pathway


Determining parental cause of death

DETERMINING PARENTAL CAUSE OF DEATH

  • InterVA software, probabilistic epidemiological model

  • Standard WHO model


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