Cell structure and function
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Cell Structure and Function. Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:. Robert Hooke 1665 term “cell” observed cork. Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:. Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1674

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Cell Structure and Function

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Cell Structure and Function


Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Robert Hooke

1665

term “cell”

observed cork


Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

1674

used high quality lenses to improve microscope

pond water - animalcules

recognized cells as basic unit of life


Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Robert Brown

1830’s

discovered the cell’s nucleus

nucleus directs cell division


Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Matthias Schleiden

1838

plants composed of cells


Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Theodor Schwann

1839

animals composed of cells


Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Rudolf Virchow

1855

new cells arise from the division of preexisting cells


Cell Theory

The work of these scientists provided information significant to the development of the cell theory

  • All living things are composed of cells

  • Cells are alike in chemical composition and structure

  • Cells are the smallest working unit of living things

  • All cells arise from other cells

All living organisms are alike because they are composed of cells

… by studying the composition and chemistry of the cell, we understand the chemistry and composition of all kinds of life forms


Breaking it down…… introduction to biochemistry


What is biochemistry???

The study of matter and the changes in matter

Pertaining to life

Bio

chemistry

Proteins

Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates

Lipids


Macromolecules

Monomer

AKA: Subunit

Polymer: Very large molecule made from individual pieces


  • Hydrolysis: Breaks apart the polymer into monomers

  • Water needed to break the bond

  • Dehydration Synthesis: AKA: Polymerization

  • Links the monomers together to form the polymer

  • Produces water


What do monomers look like?

  • Hydrocarbon: Molecule containing

    Hydrogen and Carbon

Saturated

Ethene

Ethane

Unsaturated

Ethyne


Molecular Structure

BRANCH

CHAIN

RING


Substituted Hydrocarbon

Methane

  • Hydroxyl -OH

  • Add –ol suffix to name

  • Creates an alcohol

  • Used to disinfect or as a fuel

Methanol


Methane

  • Carboxyl Group -COOH

  • Creates a carboxylic acid or organic acid

  • Found in citrus fruits, vinegar (ethanoic acid)

Methanoic Acid


Methane

  • Amine -NH2

  • Includes novocaine, painkiller

Methylamine


Carbohydrates


Proteins


Lipids


Nucleic Acids


Group Project- Make a Biological Molecule

  • Build a biological molecule to hang from the ceiling.

  • Include all major structures.

  • Sketch out model before building.

  • You will have 20 minutes in class today and tomorrow to collaborate and 30 minutes to build on Friday.

  • Be creative!!!


Enzyme Salad Lab

  • Test Tubes Containing the following

    • 1. Frozen + Gelatin

    • 2. Fresh + Gelatin

    • 3. Canned + Gelatin

    • 4. Gelatin

  • Place the test tubes in an ice bath. Once tube 4 has gelled, record observations in the table.


Discussion Questions

  • Why did test tube #4 contain only gelatin?

  • What could account for the different results in the tubes?

    3. How could the canning process change bromelin?

    4. What could you do to fresh pineapple that would allow the salad to gel?


Catalyst


Enzymes


Organic Molecules that compose “life’s building blocks”


Enzyme activity(video)

A. Enzymes put molecules together……SYNTHESIS.

B. Enzymes take molecules apart…… DIGESTION.

C. Enzymes control chemical reactions…….LIFE.

D. Enzymes make chemical reactions require less energy.

Substrate

Enzyme A

Enzyme B

Lock and Key Theory for Enzyme Action


Cells and cell types


Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells

  • No Nucleus

  • Small and simple

  • No organelles

  • Sticky capsule

  • Contains cell wall (peptidoglycan)

  • First cells

  • Live in a wide variety of environments

  • Include bacteria

  • Nucleus

  • Organelles

  • Unicellular or multicellular

  • Cytoskeleton

  • Some have cilia

  • Include all cells but bacteria


Single Cell

  • Monera

  • Prokaryotic – lacking a nucleus and any organelles

  • Reproduce by binary fission – splitting into two

  • Ex. Bacteria

  • Protista

  • Eukaryotic – Nucleus present

  • Have organelles that carry out specific functions

  • Ex. Amoeba, paramecium, euglena


Multi Cell

  • Fungi

  • Eukaryotic – Nucleus present

  • Cell Wall composed of chitin

  • Saprophytic (food comes from dead organic material)

  • Individual cells are not completely separate from neighboring cells

  • Ex. Bread mold, mushrooms, Athlete’s foot


  • Animal

  • Eukaryotic – Nucleus present

  • Heterotrophic – food comes from organic material

  • No cell wall or chloroplast

  • Do have centrioles

  • Plants

  • Eukaryotic – Nucleus present

  • Cell Wall composed of cellulose

  • Autotrophic – can produce their own food

  • Chloroplasts, large vacuoles


Quick Quiz!! If you found a new organism and it was multicellular, did not contain chloroplasts, but did have cell walls, which kingdom would you expect it to belong to?

  • Monera

  • Protista

  • Fungi

  • Plantae

  • Animalia


How did the first cells form?

Oparin – Haldane Hypothesis (1920’s)

Idea based on the behavior of energy and molecules found in all living things

Prebiotic Soup:

Methane (CH4)

Hydrogen gas (H2)

Ammonia gas (NH3)

Water vapor (H2O)

Very Little Oxygen!!

Earth’s Conditions:

volcanic eruptions

UV radiation

lightning

meteor bombardment

UV radiation synthesized the first organic compounds from inorganic precursors


Testing the Hypothesis

Stanley Miller (1953)

Set up experiments using O-H hypothesis

Produced simple amino acids

1 week!!!

Amino Acids

- building blocks for all life forms, protein components

Molecules + Energy = Larger molecules and chemical compounds


Results = Theory of How Earth’s Life Began

Evidence:

20 amino acids

common sugars

lipids

DNA and RNA

ATP

These have all been recreated in the laboratory. All the steps to making simple cells have been recreated under lab conditions!!

Molecules of

LIFE


Quick Quiz!! What organelles are made up of lipids?

  • Cell membrane

  • Nuclear membrane

  • Endoplasmic reticulum

  • Golgi Bodies

  • All of the above

Response Grid


Conclusion = Theory of How Earth’s Life Began

1.) The Earth consisted of prebiotic soup from which

small organic compounds were made

2.) Small molecules were joined to make larger molecules

3.) Molecules organized into droplets with different

Characteristics than the molecules alone.

4.) Origin of heredity: formation of DNA allows primitive

cells to reproduce themselves and pass on info.


Endosymbiont Hypothesis

Lynn Margulis (1970) proposed an evolutionary explanation for eukaryotic cells

…Eukaryotic cell is the result of prokaryotic cells living enclosed in one cell

Symbiotic:

mutually benefiting from the relationship


Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

Eukaryotic Cells

Nucleus present

Complex and organized

complex and specialized functions

Ex. – all body cells, plant cells, fungi, etc.

Evolutionarily advanced over prokaryotic cells

Prokaryotic Cells

No nucleus

Simple cells

Function simply

Ex. – Bacteria

Precursors to eukaryotes


Cell Membrane

Function:

-Separates the cell from its surroundings

-Protects the cell contents

- Determines what raw materials will enter*

- Releases waste products produced inside of cell*

*Transport Mechanisms


Cell Membrane

Phospholipid Bilayer

…flexible barrier allowing only lipid soluble substances

into the cell

…fluid mosaic model = individual phospholipids can move around within the membrane

Proteins

…pump for specific substances into/out of cells

…open channels for certain materials

Carbohydrates

…membrane stabilizers (cholesterol)

…chemical identification of the cell


Nucleus

Functions:

- control center, cell activities are primarily directed from the nucleus

- Contains the DNA and proteins = CHROMATIN

- Chromatin condenses during reproduction to form CHROMOSOMES


Quick Quiz!! The majority of chromosomes are made up of what kinds of molecules?

  • Carbohydrates

  • Lipids

  • Proteins

  • Nucleic Acids

Response Grid


Nucleus

Membrane bound

porous membrane


Nucleolus

Dark staining structure within the nucleus

Contains r-RNA, makes ribosomes


Cell Fluids

Plasm = fluid

Cyto = cell

Nucleoplasm:

Inside of the nucleus

Cytoplasm:

Outside of the nucleus


Cytoplasm

Organelles in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells:

Ribosomes

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Golgi Apparatus

Lysosomes

Cytoskeleton

Vacuoles

Mitochondria

Organelles in some eukaryotic cells:

Choloroplasts

Cell Wall

Flagella

Cilia

Centrioles


Ribosomes

Tiny structure where proteins are assembled from amino acids


Endoplasmic Reticulum

Network of membranes dividing cytoplasm and directing the flow of material through the cell

Rough – ribosomes attached, rough appearance

Smooth – no ribosomes, smooth appearance


Quick Quiz!! Because ER is made from membranes, what type of organic macromolecule would you expect it to be constructed from?

  • Carbohydrates

  • Lipids

  • Proteins

  • Nucleic Acids

Response Grid


Golgi Apparatus

Tightly grouped membranous structure where proteins are condensed, collected, and packaged for storage or shipment out of the cell

Produces lysosomes, vesicles, and vacuoles


Lysosome, Vacuoles, and Vesicles:

Lysosome: sac-like structure containing enzymes for cellular breakdown; recycling plant

Vacuoles and Vesicles:

- store carbs, water, salts, fats, etc.

-Vacuoles may be larger

-In plants, vacuole provides support

- Vacuoles stay in cells

- Vesicles bring things into/out of cells


Quick Quiz!! After a protein has just been produced, where is it most likely to go?

  • A ribosome

  • The ER

  • A vesicle

  • The Golgi Apparatus

Response Grid


Cytoskeleton

Microtubule and microfilament network that provides a framework

Movement of proteins inside cell

Movement of the cell


Mitochondrion

Contain their own DNA

Takes chemical fuel (glucose) and converts it into small useable packages (ATP)


Organelles in some eukaryotic cells but not all…


Chloroplasts

Contain their own DNA

Light absorbing structure that package ENERGY in glucose


Cell Walls

Structure that surrounds cell membrane

Provides support and rigidity to cells

In plants, composed of cellulose

In fungi, composed of chiten


Flagella

Tail-like structures used for locomotion


Cilia

Short, hair-like structures on the surface of the cell

Used for locomotion and to move materials near cell


Centrioles

Only in animal cells

Used in cell division


Quick Quiz!! In addition to centrioles, what else is made of microtubles?

  • Cytoskeleton

  • Mitochondria

  • Cell walls

  • Ribosomes

  • Endoplasmic reticulum

Response Grid


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