Cell structure and function
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Cell Structure and Function. Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:. Robert Hooke 1665 term “cell” observed cork. Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:. Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1674

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Cell Structure and Function

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Cell Structure and Function

Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Robert Hooke


term “cell”

observed cork

Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Anton van Leeuwenhoek


used high quality lenses to improve microscope

pond water - animalcules

recognized cells as basic unit of life

Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Robert Brown


discovered the cell’s nucleus

nucleus directs cell division

Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Matthias Schleiden


plants composed of cells

Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Theodor Schwann


animals composed of cells

Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Rudolf Virchow


new cells arise from the division of preexisting cells

Cell Theory

The work of these scientists provided information significant to the development of the cell theory

  • All living things are composed of cells

  • Cells are alike in chemical composition and structure

  • Cells are the smallest working unit of living things

  • All cells arise from other cells

All living organisms are alike because they are composed of cells

… by studying the composition and chemistry of the cell, we understand the chemistry and composition of all kinds of life forms

Breaking it down…… introduction to biochemistry

What is biochemistry???

The study of matter and the changes in matter

Pertaining to life




Nucleic Acids





AKA: Subunit

Polymer: Very large molecule made from individual pieces

  • Hydrolysis: Breaks apart the polymer into monomers

  • Water needed to break the bond

  • Dehydration Synthesis: AKA: Polymerization

  • Links the monomers together to form the polymer

  • Produces water

What do monomers look like?

  • Hydrocarbon: Molecule containing

    Hydrogen and Carbon






Molecular Structure




Substituted Hydrocarbon


  • Hydroxyl -OH

  • Add –ol suffix to name

  • Creates an alcohol

  • Used to disinfect or as a fuel



  • Carboxyl Group -COOH

  • Creates a carboxylic acid or organic acid

  • Found in citrus fruits, vinegar (ethanoic acid)

Methanoic Acid


  • Amine -NH2

  • Includes novocaine, painkiller





Nucleic Acids

Group Project- Make a Biological Molecule

  • Build a biological molecule to hang from the ceiling.

  • Include all major structures.

  • Sketch out model before building.

  • You will have 20 minutes in class today and tomorrow to collaborate and 30 minutes to build on Friday.

  • Be creative!!!

Enzyme Salad Lab

  • Test Tubes Containing the following

    • 1. Frozen + Gelatin

    • 2. Fresh + Gelatin

    • 3. Canned + Gelatin

    • 4. Gelatin

  • Place the test tubes in an ice bath. Once tube 4 has gelled, record observations in the table.

Discussion Questions

  • Why did test tube #4 contain only gelatin?

  • What could account for the different results in the tubes?

    3. How could the canning process change bromelin?

    4. What could you do to fresh pineapple that would allow the salad to gel?



Organic Molecules that compose “life’s building blocks”

Enzyme activity(video)

A. Enzymes put molecules together……SYNTHESIS.

B. Enzymes take molecules apart…… DIGESTION.

C. Enzymes control chemical reactions…….LIFE.

D. Enzymes make chemical reactions require less energy.


Enzyme A

Enzyme B

Lock and Key Theory for Enzyme Action

Cells and cell types

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells

  • No Nucleus

  • Small and simple

  • No organelles

  • Sticky capsule

  • Contains cell wall (peptidoglycan)

  • First cells

  • Live in a wide variety of environments

  • Include bacteria

  • Nucleus

  • Organelles

  • Unicellular or multicellular

  • Cytoskeleton

  • Some have cilia

  • Include all cells but bacteria

Single Cell

  • Monera

  • Prokaryotic – lacking a nucleus and any organelles

  • Reproduce by binary fission – splitting into two

  • Ex. Bacteria

  • Protista

  • Eukaryotic – Nucleus present

  • Have organelles that carry out specific functions

  • Ex. Amoeba, paramecium, euglena

Multi Cell

  • Fungi

  • Eukaryotic – Nucleus present

  • Cell Wall composed of chitin

  • Saprophytic (food comes from dead organic material)

  • Individual cells are not completely separate from neighboring cells

  • Ex. Bread mold, mushrooms, Athlete’s foot

  • Animal

  • Eukaryotic – Nucleus present

  • Heterotrophic – food comes from organic material

  • No cell wall or chloroplast

  • Do have centrioles

  • Plants

  • Eukaryotic – Nucleus present

  • Cell Wall composed of cellulose

  • Autotrophic – can produce their own food

  • Chloroplasts, large vacuoles

Quick Quiz!! If you found a new organism and it was multicellular, did not contain chloroplasts, but did have cell walls, which kingdom would you expect it to belong to?

  • Monera

  • Protista

  • Fungi

  • Plantae

  • Animalia

How did the first cells form?

Oparin – Haldane Hypothesis (1920’s)

Idea based on the behavior of energy and molecules found in all living things

Prebiotic Soup:

Methane (CH4)

Hydrogen gas (H2)

Ammonia gas (NH3)

Water vapor (H2O)

Very Little Oxygen!!

Earth’s Conditions:

volcanic eruptions

UV radiation


meteor bombardment

UV radiation synthesized the first organic compounds from inorganic precursors

Testing the Hypothesis

Stanley Miller (1953)

Set up experiments using O-H hypothesis

Produced simple amino acids

1 week!!!

Amino Acids

- building blocks for all life forms, protein components

Molecules + Energy = Larger molecules and chemical compounds

Results = Theory of How Earth’s Life Began


20 amino acids

common sugars




These have all been recreated in the laboratory. All the steps to making simple cells have been recreated under lab conditions!!

Molecules of


Quick Quiz!! What organelles are made up of lipids?

  • Cell membrane

  • Nuclear membrane

  • Endoplasmic reticulum

  • Golgi Bodies

  • All of the above

Response Grid

Conclusion = Theory of How Earth’s Life Began

1.) The Earth consisted of prebiotic soup from which

small organic compounds were made

2.) Small molecules were joined to make larger molecules

3.) Molecules organized into droplets with different

Characteristics than the molecules alone.

4.) Origin of heredity: formation of DNA allows primitive

cells to reproduce themselves and pass on info.

Endosymbiont Hypothesis

Lynn Margulis (1970) proposed an evolutionary explanation for eukaryotic cells

…Eukaryotic cell is the result of prokaryotic cells living enclosed in one cell


mutually benefiting from the relationship

Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

Eukaryotic Cells

Nucleus present

Complex and organized

complex and specialized functions

Ex. – all body cells, plant cells, fungi, etc.

Evolutionarily advanced over prokaryotic cells

Prokaryotic Cells

No nucleus

Simple cells

Function simply

Ex. – Bacteria

Precursors to eukaryotes

Cell Membrane


-Separates the cell from its surroundings

-Protects the cell contents

- Determines what raw materials will enter*

- Releases waste products produced inside of cell*

*Transport Mechanisms

Cell Membrane

Phospholipid Bilayer

…flexible barrier allowing only lipid soluble substances

into the cell

…fluid mosaic model = individual phospholipids can move around within the membrane


…pump for specific substances into/out of cells

…open channels for certain materials


…membrane stabilizers (cholesterol)

…chemical identification of the cell



- control center, cell activities are primarily directed from the nucleus

- Contains the DNA and proteins = CHROMATIN

- Chromatin condenses during reproduction to form CHROMOSOMES

Quick Quiz!! The majority of chromosomes are made up of what kinds of molecules?

  • Carbohydrates

  • Lipids

  • Proteins

  • Nucleic Acids

Response Grid


Membrane bound

porous membrane


Dark staining structure within the nucleus

Contains r-RNA, makes ribosomes

Cell Fluids

Plasm = fluid

Cyto = cell


Inside of the nucleus


Outside of the nucleus


Organelles in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells:


Endoplasmic Reticulum

Golgi Apparatus





Organelles in some eukaryotic cells:


Cell Wall





Tiny structure where proteins are assembled from amino acids

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Network of membranes dividing cytoplasm and directing the flow of material through the cell

Rough – ribosomes attached, rough appearance

Smooth – no ribosomes, smooth appearance

Quick Quiz!! Because ER is made from membranes, what type of organic macromolecule would you expect it to be constructed from?

  • Carbohydrates

  • Lipids

  • Proteins

  • Nucleic Acids

Response Grid

Golgi Apparatus

Tightly grouped membranous structure where proteins are condensed, collected, and packaged for storage or shipment out of the cell

Produces lysosomes, vesicles, and vacuoles

Lysosome, Vacuoles, and Vesicles:

Lysosome: sac-like structure containing enzymes for cellular breakdown; recycling plant

Vacuoles and Vesicles:

- store carbs, water, salts, fats, etc.

-Vacuoles may be larger

-In plants, vacuole provides support

- Vacuoles stay in cells

- Vesicles bring things into/out of cells

Quick Quiz!! After a protein has just been produced, where is it most likely to go?

  • A ribosome

  • The ER

  • A vesicle

  • The Golgi Apparatus

Response Grid


Microtubule and microfilament network that provides a framework

Movement of proteins inside cell

Movement of the cell


Contain their own DNA

Takes chemical fuel (glucose) and converts it into small useable packages (ATP)

Organelles in some eukaryotic cells but not all…


Contain their own DNA

Light absorbing structure that package ENERGY in glucose

Cell Walls

Structure that surrounds cell membrane

Provides support and rigidity to cells

In plants, composed of cellulose

In fungi, composed of chiten


Tail-like structures used for locomotion


Short, hair-like structures on the surface of the cell

Used for locomotion and to move materials near cell


Only in animal cells

Used in cell division

Quick Quiz!! In addition to centrioles, what else is made of microtubles?

  • Cytoskeleton

  • Mitochondria

  • Cell walls

  • Ribosomes

  • Endoplasmic reticulum

Response Grid

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