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Cell Structure and Function. Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:. Robert Hooke 1665 term “cell” observed cork. Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:. Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1674

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Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology
Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Robert Hooke

1665

term “cell”

observed cork


Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology1
Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

1674

used high quality lenses to improve microscope

pond water - animalcules

recognized cells as basic unit of life


Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology2
Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Robert Brown

1830’s

discovered the cell’s nucleus

nucleus directs cell division


Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology3
Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Matthias Schleiden

1838

plants composed of cells


Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology4
Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Theodor Schwann

1839

animals composed of cells


Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology5
Scientists responsible for the tools and foundations of cell biology:

Rudolf Virchow

1855

new cells arise from the division of preexisting cells


Cell theory
Cell Theory biology:

The work of these scientists provided information significant to the development of the cell theory

  • All living things are composed of cells

  • Cells are alike in chemical composition and structure

  • Cells are the smallest working unit of living things

  • All cells arise from other cells

All living organisms are alike because they are composed of cells

… by studying the composition and chemistry of the cell, we understand the chemistry and composition of all kinds of life forms



What is biochemistry
What is biochemistry??? biology:

The study of matter and the changes in matter

Pertaining to life

Bio

chemistry

Proteins

Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates

Lipids


Macromolecules
Macromolecules biology:

Monomer

AKA: Subunit

Polymer: Very large molecule made from individual pieces


  • Dehydration Synthesis: AKA: Polymerization

  • Links the monomers together to form the polymer

  • Produces water


What do monomers look like
What do monomers look like? biology:

  • Hydrocarbon: Molecule containing

    Hydrogen and Carbon

Saturated

Ethene

Ethane

Unsaturated

Ethyne


Molecular structure
Molecular Structure biology:

BRANCH

CHAIN

RING


Substituted hydrocarbon
Substituted Hydrocarbon biology:

Methane

  • Hydroxyl -OH

  • Add –ol suffix to name

  • Creates an alcohol

  • Used to disinfect or as a fuel

Methanol


Methane biology:

  • Carboxyl Group -COOH

  • Creates a carboxylic acid or organic acid

  • Found in citrus fruits, vinegar (ethanoic acid)

Methanoic Acid


Methane biology:

  • Amine -NH2

  • Includes novocaine, painkiller

Methylamine


Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates biology:


Proteins
Proteins biology:


Lipids
Lipids biology:


Nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids biology:


Group project make a biological molecule
Group Project- Make a Biological Molecule biology:

  • Build a biological molecule to hang from the ceiling.

  • Include all major structures.

  • Sketch out model before building.

  • You will have 20 minutes in class today and tomorrow to collaborate and 30 minutes to build on Friday.

  • Be creative!!!


Enzyme salad lab
Enzyme Salad Lab biology:

  • Test Tubes Containing the following

    • 1. Frozen + Gelatin

    • 2. Fresh + Gelatin

    • 3. Canned + Gelatin

    • 4. Gelatin

  • Place the test tubes in an ice bath. Once tube 4 has gelled, record observations in the table.


Discussion questions
Discussion Questions biology:

  • Why did test tube #4 contain only gelatin?

  • What could account for the different results in the tubes?

    3. How could the canning process change bromelin?

    4. What could you do to fresh pineapple that would allow the salad to gel?


Catalyst
Catalyst biology:


Enzymes
Enzymes biology:



Enzyme activity video
Enzyme activity blocks”(video)

A. Enzymes put molecules together……SYNTHESIS.

B. Enzymes take molecules apart…… DIGESTION.

C. Enzymes control chemical reactions…….LIFE.

D. Enzymes make chemical reactions require less energy.

Substrate

Enzyme A

Enzyme B

Lock and Key Theory for Enzyme Action



Prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells blocks”

  • No Nucleus

  • Small and simple

  • No organelles

  • Sticky capsule

  • Contains cell wall (peptidoglycan)

  • First cells

  • Live in a wide variety of environments

  • Include bacteria

  • Nucleus

  • Organelles

  • Unicellular or multicellular

  • Cytoskeleton

  • Some have cilia

  • Include all cells but bacteria


Single cell
Single Cell blocks”

  • Monera

  • Prokaryotic – lacking a nucleus and any organelles

  • Reproduce by binary fission – splitting into two

  • Ex. Bacteria

  • Protista

  • Eukaryotic – Nucleus present

  • Have organelles that carry out specific functions

  • Ex. Amoeba, paramecium, euglena


Multi cell
Multi Cell blocks”

  • Fungi

  • Eukaryotic – Nucleus present

  • Cell Wall composed of chitin

  • Saprophytic (food comes from dead organic material)

  • Individual cells are not completely separate from neighboring cells

  • Ex. Bread mold, mushrooms, Athlete’s foot


  • Animal blocks”

  • Eukaryotic – Nucleus present

  • Heterotrophic – food comes from organic material

  • No cell wall or chloroplast

  • Do have centrioles

  • Plants

  • Eukaryotic – Nucleus present

  • Cell Wall composed of cellulose

  • Autotrophic – can produce their own food

  • Chloroplasts, large vacuoles


Quick Quiz!! If you found a new organism and it was blocks”multicellular, did not contain chloroplasts, but did have cell walls, which kingdom would you expect it to belong to?

  • Monera

  • Protista

  • Fungi

  • Plantae

  • Animalia


How did the first cells form
How did the first cells form? blocks”

Oparin – Haldane Hypothesis (1920’s)

Idea based on the behavior of energy and molecules found in all living things

Prebiotic Soup:

Methane (CH4)

Hydrogen gas (H2)

Ammonia gas (NH3)

Water vapor (H2O)

Very Little Oxygen!!

Earth’s Conditions:

volcanic eruptions

UV radiation

lightning

meteor bombardment

UV radiation synthesized the first organic compounds from inorganic precursors


Testing the hypothesis
Testing the Hypothesis blocks”

Stanley Miller (1953)

Set up experiments using O-H hypothesis

Produced simple amino acids

1 week!!!

Amino Acids

- building blocks for all life forms, protein components

Molecules + Energy = Larger molecules and chemical compounds


Results theory of how earth s life began
Results = Theory of How Earth’s Life Began blocks”

Evidence:

20 amino acids

common sugars

lipids

DNA and RNA

ATP

These have all been recreated in the laboratory. All the steps to making simple cells have been recreated under lab conditions!!

Molecules of

LIFE


Quick quiz what organelles are made up of lipids
Quick Quiz!! What organelles are made up of lipids? blocks”

  • Cell membrane

  • Nuclear membrane

  • Endoplasmic reticulum

  • Golgi Bodies

  • All of the above

Response Grid


Conclusion theory of how earth s life began
Conclusion = Theory of How Earth’s Life Began blocks”

1.) The Earth consisted of prebiotic soup from which

small organic compounds were made

2.) Small molecules were joined to make larger molecules

3.) Molecules organized into droplets with different

Characteristics than the molecules alone.

4.) Origin of heredity: formation of DNA allows primitive

cells to reproduce themselves and pass on info.


Endosymbiont hypothesis
Endosymbiont Hypothesis blocks”

Lynn Margulis (1970) proposed an evolutionary explanation for eukaryotic cells

…Eukaryotic cell is the result of prokaryotic cells living enclosed in one cell

Symbiotic:

mutually benefiting from the relationship


Prokaryotes vs eukaryotes
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes blocks”

Eukaryotic Cells

Nucleus present

Complex and organized

complex and specialized functions

Ex. – all body cells, plant cells, fungi, etc.

Evolutionarily advanced over prokaryotic cells

Prokaryotic Cells

No nucleus

Simple cells

Function simply

Ex. – Bacteria

Precursors to eukaryotes


Cell membrane
Cell Membrane blocks”

Function:

-Separates the cell from its surroundings

-Protects the cell contents

- Determines what raw materials will enter*

- Releases waste products produced inside of cell*

*Transport Mechanisms


Cell membrane1
Cell Membrane blocks”

Phospholipid Bilayer

…flexible barrier allowing only lipid soluble substances

into the cell

…fluid mosaic model = individual phospholipids can move around within the membrane

Proteins

…pump for specific substances into/out of cells

…open channels for certain materials

Carbohydrates

…membrane stabilizers (cholesterol)

…chemical identification of the cell


Nucleus
Nucleus blocks”

Functions:

- control center, cell activities are primarily directed from the nucleus

- Contains the DNA and proteins = CHROMATIN

- Chromatin condenses during reproduction to form CHROMOSOMES


Quick quiz the majority of chromosomes are made up of what kinds of molecules
Quick Quiz!! The majority of chromosomes are made up of what kinds of molecules?

  • Carbohydrates

  • Lipids

  • Proteins

  • Nucleic Acids

Response Grid


Nucleus1
Nucleus kinds of molecules?

Membrane bound

porous membrane


Nucleolus
Nucleolus kinds of molecules?

Dark staining structure within the nucleus

Contains r-RNA, makes ribosomes


Cell fluids
Cell Fluids kinds of molecules?

Plasm = fluid

Cyto = cell

Nucleoplasm:

Inside of the nucleus

Cytoplasm:

Outside of the nucleus


Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm kinds of molecules?

Organelles in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells:

Ribosomes

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Golgi Apparatus

Lysosomes

Cytoskeleton

Vacuoles

Mitochondria

Organelles in some eukaryotic cells:

Choloroplasts

Cell Wall

Flagella

Cilia

Centrioles


Ribosomes
Ribosomes kinds of molecules?

Tiny structure where proteins are assembled from amino acids


Endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum kinds of molecules?

Network of membranes dividing cytoplasm and directing the flow of material through the cell

Rough – ribosomes attached, rough appearance

Smooth – no ribosomes, smooth appearance


Quick Quiz!! Because ER is made from membranes, what type of organic macromolecule would you expect it to be constructed from?

  • Carbohydrates

  • Lipids

  • Proteins

  • Nucleic Acids

Response Grid


Golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus organic macromolecule would you expect it to be constructed from?

Tightly grouped membranous structure where proteins are condensed, collected, and packaged for storage or shipment out of the cell

Produces lysosomes, vesicles, and vacuoles


Lysosome vacuoles and vesicles
Lysosome, Vacuoles, and Vesicles: organic macromolecule would you expect it to be constructed from?

Lysosome: sac-like structure containing enzymes for cellular breakdown; recycling plant

Vacuoles and Vesicles:

- store carbs, water, salts, fats, etc.

-Vacuoles may be larger

-In plants, vacuole provides support

- Vacuoles stay in cells

- Vesicles bring things into/out of cells


Quick quiz after a protein has just been produced where is it most likely to go
Quick Quiz!! After a protein has just been produced, where is it most likely to go?

  • A ribosome

  • The ER

  • A vesicle

  • The Golgi Apparatus

Response Grid


Cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton is it most likely to go?

Microtubule and microfilament network that provides a framework

Movement of proteins inside cell

Movement of the cell


Mitochondrion
Mitochondrion is it most likely to go?

Contain their own DNA

Takes chemical fuel (glucose) and converts it into small useable packages (ATP)



Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts is it most likely to go?

Contain their own DNA

Light absorbing structure that package ENERGY in glucose


Cell walls
Cell Walls is it most likely to go?

Structure that surrounds cell membrane

Provides support and rigidity to cells

In plants, composed of cellulose

In fungi, composed of chiten


Flagella
Flagella is it most likely to go?

Tail-like structures used for locomotion


Cilia
Cilia is it most likely to go?

Short, hair-like structures on the surface of the cell

Used for locomotion and to move materials near cell


Centrioles
Centrioles is it most likely to go?

Only in animal cells

Used in cell division


Quick quiz in addition to centrioles what else is made of microtubles
Quick Quiz!! In addition to centrioles, what else is made of microtubles?

  • Cytoskeleton

  • Mitochondria

  • Cell walls

  • Ribosomes

  • Endoplasmic reticulum

Response Grid


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