The role of reputation
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The Role of Reputation:. History, Status and Outlook of Romany and Basque. Introduction. Romany & Basque Similarities Mysterious Histories Plagued with poor reputations Differences Land Claims Economic Status State Recognition. Romany. History of the Roma People.

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The role of reputation

The Role of Reputation:

History, Status and Outlook of Romany and Basque


Introduction

Introduction

  • Romany & Basque

    • Similarities

      • Mysterious Histories

      • Plagued with poor reputations

    • Differences

      • Land Claims

      • Economic Status

      • State Recognition


Romany

Romany


History of the roma people

History of the Roma People

  • Centuries ago the Roma migrated to Europe from Northern India.

  • In the 18th Century a linguistic link between Romany and Sanskrit was discovered.

  • Traveling musicians, blacksmiths, pot menders, entertainers.

  • Highly persecuted throughout history.

  • Stereotyped predominantly as thieves.


Status of romany

Status of Romany

  • Approximately 1.5-4.5 Million speakers

  • Many dialects

    • A collection of related languages that comprise all the members of a single genetic subgroup.

  • No Official Status in Europe

  • Falls under the protection of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages


Outlook of romany

Outlook of Romany

  • Many do not identify themselves as Roma

  • Traditional lifestyles clash with modern societies

  • BUT transnational organizations have emerged to promote the rights of the Roma and the preservation of Romany.


Basque

Basque


History of basque

History of Basque

  • Language Isolate

  • Languages of the Region were:

    • Latin

    • French or Castilian Spanish

  • Basque Nationalist Movement began in the middle of the 19th Century.

  • In 1950s, the nationalism swelled into separatism.


Status of basque

Status of Basque

  • A standardized Basque Grammar was published in 1968.

  • Schools began using Basque as the primary language of instruction.

  • In 1982 Basque became one of the official languages of the region.

  • There are approximately 600,000 speakers, primarily in Spain and France.

  • Basque is protected under the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages.


Outlook of basque

Outlook of Basque

  • Strong associations of language with culture and nationalism.

  • Today there are:

    • Daily newspapers

    • Websites and Institutes promoting Basque

    • Study Abroad Programs

    • Pop Music in Basque

  • Recently Basque gained recognition as a working language within the EU.


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Basque and Romany are endangered languages with very different statuses.

  • Basque’s advantages:

    • Claim to land and standardized language

    • Strong nationalism associated with language

    • Traditionally European

    • Recognized and protected by Spain and the EU

  • Romany’s Advantages:

    • Nomadic group with limited contact with outsiders

    • Over 1 million speakers

    • Recent enlargement of EU could be advantageous

  • At the current state, Basque has managed to overcome its image as terrorists and appears to have a much better chance for survival.


Bibliography

Bibliography

  • “Basque Language.” 25 Sep. 2005. Wikipedia. 26 Sep. 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basque_language

  • “Basque Nationalism.” 21 Sep. 2005. Wikipedia. 26 Sep. 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basque_nationalism

  • Bretting, J. (2003). “The East European Gypsies: Regime Change, Marginality, and Ethnopolitics.” The Journal of Politics 65(3), 935-937.

  • Capras, D. “Go Europe--Use English.” Spotlight 15 Jun 2005. 26 Sep 2005 http://www.spotlight-online.de/doc/18251

  • Durnescu, I. et. al. (2002), “Incidence and Characteristics of Rroma Men in Romanian Prisons.” The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 41(3), 237-244.

  • European Charter for Minority and Regional Languages (2005). Wikipedia. Nov 1, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Charter_for_Minority_or_Regional_Languages.

  • Green, J. (1999). “Language: Romany Rise.” Critical Quarterly41(3), 118-122.

  • Guglielmo, R. & Waters T. (2005). “Migrating Towards Minority Status: Shifting European Policy towards Roma.” Journal of Common Market Studies 43(4), 763-86.

  • “Language Isolate.” 25 Sep. 2005. Wikipedia. 26 Sep. 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_isolate

  • Posavek & Hrvatic (2000). “Intercultural education and Roma in Croatia.” Intercultural Education 11(1), 93-105.

  • “Regional and minority languages of the European Union.” Education and Training. 28 Feb. 2005. Europa. 26 Sep. 2005 http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/policies/lang/languages/langmin/regmin_en.html

  • Romany (2005). Wikipedia. Nov 1, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romany

  • Roma People (2005). Wikipedia. Nov 1, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roma_People.

  • Salleh, A. (2004). “Romany Gypsies came out of India.” News in Science. Nov 1, 2005 http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s1191889.htm.

  • Sever, I. (1999). “The Never-Ending Roma Question.” The Patrin Web Journal. Nov 1, 2005 http://www.geocities.com/Paris/5121/never-ending-question.htm.

  • Tejerina, B. (2001). “Protest cycle, political violence and social movements in the Basque Country.” Nations and Nationalism 7(1), 39-57.

  • “The languages of Spain.” Cyberspain. 26 Sep. 2005 http://www.cyberspain.com/passion/lenguajes.htm

  • Urla, J. (2003). “Euskara: the 'terror' of a European minority language.” Anthropology Today, 19(4), 1-3.


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