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World History. Chapter 2: Section Four. Egyptian Civ.. Religion affected daily life in Egypt What we know comes from inscriptions on walls and tombs. Gods and Goddesses. Sun god was tops – Re Became associated with Amon Called Amon-Re – great god

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World history

World History

Chapter 2: Section Four


Egyptian civ

Egyptian Civ.

  • Religion affected daily life in Egypt

  • What we know comes from inscriptions on walls and tombs


Gods and goddesses

Gods and Goddesses

  • Sun god was tops – Re

  • Became associated with Amon

  • Called Amon-Re – great god

  • Pharaohs received right to rule from Amon-Re

  • Osiris and Isis – Osiris ruled underworld and the Nile – controlled annual flood

  • Isis – taught women to weave cloth, grind corn, spin flax and raise children


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  • Amenhotep IV – tried to reshape religion

  • He served Aton – minor god

  • Changed name to Akhenaton

  • Ordered priests to only serve Aton

  • Most ignored him and after he died they went back to their old ways


Afterlife

Afterlife

  • All Egyptians believed in afterlife

  • Soul had to pass test to win eternal life

  • Ferried across lake of fire to Hall of Osiris – heart was weighed against the feather of truth

  • Sinners – fed to the Eater of Death

  • Worthy – field of food – live forever

  • To survive underworld – used book of the dead – spells, charms, formulas


Preparation of the dead

Preparation of the Dead

  • Afterlife – much like life on Earth

  • Buried dead with everything they would need

  • Mummification - preservation of the body – embalm, wrap in cloth

  • At first only rulers/nobles

  • Then ordinary people and pets


Tutankhamen

Tutankhamen

  • New Kingdom – pharaohs buried in the Valley of the Kings

  • Tombs filled with treasure – robbed long ago

  • Tutankhamen’s tomb untouched and offered many artifacts and information

  • Solid gold coffin etc. on display in Cairo museum


Society

Society

  • Pharaoh at the top with royal family

  • Government officials

  • High priests and priestesses

  • Merchants, scribes, artisans

  • Peasants and slaves

  • Most people were farmers – offseason – they worked for Pharaoh building palaces, temples, tombs


Social change

Social Change

  • Trade and warfare increased

  • More trade = more money = more business opportunities = more business for artisans


Women

Women

  • Generally had a higher status than in other civilizations

  • Ramses II said a woman could go where she wanted and no one could stop her

  • Own property, business deals, buy and sell, go to court, obtain a divorce

  • Women made perfumes, textiles, doctors, managed estates, priests

  • Few women learned to read and write

  • If they did they were still excluded from government


Advances in learning

Advances in Learning

  • Developed writing – multiple

  • Hieroglyphics – system of pictures represent objects, concepts or sounds

  • Often carved in stone

  • Hieratic – simpler writing for everyday use – cursive form of writing by simplifying hieroglyphs


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  • Papyrus – paper like writing material from plants

  • Writing on this was easier than chiseling in stone

  • Official writing was still done in stone


Rosetta stone

Rosetta Stone

  • Meanings of hieroglyphs lost

  • 1800’s – Jean Champollion deciphered hieroglyphs by decoding the Rosetta Stone

  • Flat black stone – has the same passage in three languages – hieroglyphs, demotic script, Greek

  • By comparing them, found the meaning of many hieroglyphs

  • Scholars could now read ancient records of Egypt


Science and math

Science and Math

  • Accumulated knowledge in medicine, astronomy, math

  • Physicians believed in magic

  • Learned about the body through mummification

  • Could diagnose and cure

  • Performed surgeries

  • Used herbal remedies

  • Mapped constellations –calendar 12 months, 30 days

  • Geometry to survey land and build pyramids


Egyptian art and literature

Egyptian Art and Literature

  • Statues, paintings, poems, stories, carvings

  • Show everyday scenes in life: Farming, family life, ceremonies

  • The larger the person drawn / Carved = importance

  • Sphinx – pharaoh as lion / man


Literature

Literature

  • Oldest – hymns and prayers to gods, proverbs and love poems


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