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6 Kingdoms of Life. As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system. Carl Linnaeus was a scientist who developed a classification system for living things. Wrote book Systema

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slide2

As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system.

classifying living things

Carl Linnaeus was a scientist who developed a classification system for living things.

Wrote book Systema

Naturae in 1735 to

reveal his classification

system.

Classifying Living Things
how biologists classify

1. Comparing morphology (physical traits)

2. Looking at genetic similarities & differences

3. Biochemical make-ups

4. Behavioral similarities

Origin of Life Video

How biologists classify
cladograms

Cladogram- a branching diagram that shows evolutionary relationships.

We use taxonomy – the science of classifying living things, to help us determine the cladogram.

Cladograms
6 kingdoms

There are six kingdoms all living things are classified into:

    • Animals
    • Plants
    • Fungi
    • Protists
    • Eubacteria
    • Archeabacteria
6 Kingdoms
scientific naming
Scientific Naming
  • Binomial nomenclature- unique 2-word naming system used by scientists.
  • 1st word is the genus, 2nd is the species.
  • Genus- group of organisms that share similar characteristics.
    • Panthera leo-lion
    • Panthera pardus-leopard
  • Species- group of organisms that can successfully breed within their group, but not others.
how to write a scientific name

Genus is always capitalized

Species is always lower case

The whole name is underlined if written or italicized if typed.

Example: Homo sapiens

How to write a scientific name
examples

Homo sapiens:

    • Homo = genus
    • sapiens = species
    • Common name = humans
  • Quercus rubra–
    • Quercus = genus
    • rubra = species
    • Common name = red oak
  • Scientific names are in Latin b/c scholars in the Middle Ages communicated using it!
Examples
classification
Classification
  • Scientists have determined seven levels of classification:
    • Kingdom = Kids
    • Phylum = Pick
    • Class= Candy
    • Order = Over
    • Family = Fancy
    • Genus = Green
    • Species = Salads
classification of modern humans
Classification of Modern Humans
  • Kingdom = Animalia
  • Phylum = Chordata
  • Class = Mammalia
  • Order = Primates
  • Family = Hominidae
  • Genus = Homo
  • Species = sapiens
slide15

The grouping of organisms into KINGDOMS is based on 3 factors:

    • 1. Cell Type (prokaryotic or eukaryotic)
    • 2. Cell Number (unicellular or multicellular)
    • 3. Feeding Type (autotroph or heterotroph)
    • 4. Cell Wall composition
slide16

1stCriteria for Kingdom Divisions:

Cell Type

Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes

slide17

2nd criteria for Kingdom Divisions:

Cell Number

  • Unicellular- single celled organism – protozoans, bacteria, some algae
  • Multicellular- many celled organism – cells start to specialize/differentiate
slide18

Unicellular

  • Multicellular
slide19

3rd Criteria for Kingdom Divisions

Feeding Type - How the organisms get their food

  • Autotroph or Producer
    • Make their own food
  • Heterotroph or Consumer
    • Must eat other organisms to survive
    • Includes decomposers – those that eat dead matter!
slide20

6 kingdoms

  • Eubacteria
  • Archaebacteria
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia
6 kingdoms1

Archaebacteria

Eubacteria

Protista

Fungi

Plantae

Animalia

6 Kingdoms

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

archaebacteria kingdom
Archaebacteria Kingdom
  • Ancient bacteria-
    • Live in very harsh environments
    • extremophiles
eubacteria kingdom

The common bacteria that most people talk about when they say “bacteria”, because they live in more neutral conditions.

Eubacteria Kingdom
protists

Protists include many widely ranging microbes, including slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae.

Protists

The “Junk Drawer” Kingdom

protista kingdom

There are animal-like, fungus-like, and plant-like protists

  • Some are beneficial
  • Some protists can cause diseases in humans, such as:
Protista Kingdom
blepharisma protist
BlepharismaProtist
  • Unicellular
  • Heterotrophic Filter Feeder
  • Eat bacteria from decomposing vegetation
  • Considered the most evolved and complex of the protozoans
  • Locomotion Cilla
paramecium
Paramecium
  • Unicellular
  • Heterotrophic
  • Feed mostly on bacteria
  • Habitat - freshwater ponds throughout the world; one species lives in marine waters
  • Locomotion Cilla
stentor protozoan
Stentor Protozoan
  • Large protist
  • Heterotrophic Filter Feeder
  • Blue/green color
  • Trumpet shaped
  • Feeds on bacteria and other small creatures
  • Locomotion Cilla
spirostomum protozoan
Spirostomum Protozoan
  • Unicellular
  • Heterotrophic
  • Feeds on bacteria
  • Habitat - freshwater ponds throughout the world; one species lives in marine waters
  • Locomotion Cilla
euglena
Euglena
  • Unicellular
  • Autrotrophic – have chloroplasts
  • Absorb food from environment
  • Locomotion flagella
amoeba
Amoeba
  • Unicellular
  • Heterotrophic
  • The diet of amoebas include bacteria, metozoa, protozoa, plant cells, etc.
  • Habitat – freshwater / saltwater
  • Locomotion- Pseudopods
protists disease

Amebic dysentery - is an infection of the intestines caused by the parasite Entamoebahistolytica.

Protists Disease

Ameba histolytica

Amebiasis is contracted by consuming contaminated food or water containing the cyst stage of the parasite. It can also be spread by person-to-person contact.

protists disease2

Malaria-Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted from one human to another by the bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes.

Protists Disease

Plasmodium

fungi kingdom

The Kingdom Fungi includes some of the most important organisms.

Heterotrophic- break down dead organic material and continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems.

Fungi Kingdom
fungi

All fungi are eukaryotic

  • They may be unicellular or multicellular
  • All fungi have a cell wall just like plants
Fungi

Unicellular (yeast)

Multicellular

fungi1

Fungi can be very helpful and delicious

Many antibacterial drugs are derived from fungi - penicillin

Fungi accounts for the blue vein in blue cheese!

Fungi

Penicillin

fungi energy sources

Fungi live off, or consume dead or decaying plant or animal material which is an important role they play in all ecosystems.

All fungi absorb their food.

Fungi Energy Sources
fungi locomotion

Fungi are stationary

They have root-like structures that they use for attachment

Mushroom are fungal fruiting bodies.

Fungi Locomotion
plant kingdom

All plants are multicellular, their cells having a cell wall

Autotrophs-make own carbs for energy through photosynthesis

Plant Kingdom
slide45

4 important plant groups are the:

Non-vascular

Mosses (Bryophytes)

Ferns (Pteridophytes)

Vascular

Flowering Plants (Angiosperms)

Conifers (Gymnosperms)

slide46

Nonvascular Plants - Mosses

  • the simplest of all land dwelling plants 
  • Nonvascular (no “veins”)-lack an internal means for
  • water transportation 
  • do not produce seeds or flowers
    • - fertilization depends on water medium to get the sperm to the egg.
  • lack a woody tissue necessary for support around their “stems” and so are usually relatively short
slide48

Vascular Plants-Angiosperms and Gymnosperms

  • Internal transportation System
    • Xylem – water carrying tubes
    • Phloem – sugar carrying tissues
    • enables plants to evolve into larger specimens.
  • Produce Seeds – protects and nourishes an Embryo of the new plant
slide49

Gymnosperms

  • Conifers (pine cones)
  • Oldest vascular plants
slide50

Angiosperms

- flowering plants

slide51

Animalia Kingdom

  • All animals are:
  • Multicellular: cells lacking a cell wall -Heterotrophs
  • Capable of movement at some point in their lives.
slide52

Criteria for Animal Classification

  • Skeletal Characteristics
    • Invertebrates

have a hard external skeleton made of chitin known as an exoskeleton

    • Vertebrates

have a hard internal skeleton made of bone or cartilage

slide53

Kingdom

    • Phylum
        • Class
          • Order
          • Family
          • Genus
          • Species

Major phylums of animals are…

slide56

Mollusks

    • Octopi, squid
slide57

Mollusks

    • Clams, oysters
slide58

Mollusks

    • Snails, slugs
slide59

Platyhelminthes (flat worms)

    • Tapeworms & Liver Fluke & Planaria
    • Hermaphrodites-fertilize their own sex cells internally then zygotes are released into water to hatch

Human liver fluke

slide61

Echinoderms

    • Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers
slide62

Arthropods

    • Shell fish, arachnids & BUGS!
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