6 kingdoms of life
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6 Kingdoms of Life. As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system. Carl Linnaeus was a scientist who developed a classification system for living things. Wrote book Systema

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6 Kingdoms of Life

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6 Kingdoms of Life

As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system.

Carl Linnaeus was a scientist who developed a classification system for living things.

Wrote book Systema

Naturae in 1735 to

reveal his classification


Classifying Living Things

1. Comparing morphology (physical traits)

2. Looking at genetic similarities & differences

3. Biochemical make-ups

4. Behavioral similarities

Origin of Life Video

How biologists classify

Cladogram- a branching diagram that shows evolutionary relationships.

We use taxonomy – the science of classifying living things, to help us determine the cladogram.


  • There are six kingdoms all living things are classified into:

    • Animals

    • Plants

    • Fungi

    • Protists

    • Eubacteria

    • Archeabacteria

6 Kingdoms

Scientific Naming

  • Binomial nomenclature- unique 2-word naming system used by scientists.

  • 1st word is the genus, 2nd is the species.

  • Genus- group of organisms that share similar characteristics.

    • Panthera leo-lion

    • Panthera pardus-leopard

  • Species- group of organisms that can successfully breed within their group, but not others.

Genus is always capitalized

Species is always lower case

The whole name is underlined if written or italicized if typed.

Example: Homo sapiens

How to write a scientific name

  • Homo sapiens:

    • Homo = genus

    • sapiens = species

    • Common name = humans

  • Quercus rubra–

    • Quercus = genus

    • rubra = species

    • Common name = red oak

  • Scientific names are in Latin b/c scholars in the Middle Ages communicated using it!



  • Scientists have determined seven levels of classification:

    • Kingdom = Kids

    • Phylum = Pick

    • Class= Candy

    • Order = Over

    • Family = Fancy

    • Genus = Green

    • Species = Salads

Classification of Modern Humans

  • Kingdom = Animalia

  • Phylum = Chordata

  • Class = Mammalia

  • Order = Primates

  • Family = Hominidae

  • Genus = Homo

  • Species = sapiens

  • The grouping of organisms into KINGDOMS is based on 3 factors:

    • 1. Cell Type (prokaryotic or eukaryotic)

    • 2. Cell Number (unicellular or multicellular)

    • 3. Feeding Type (autotroph or heterotroph)

    • 4. Cell Wall composition

1stCriteria for Kingdom Divisions:

Cell Type

Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes

2nd criteria for Kingdom Divisions:

Cell Number

  • Unicellular- single celled organism – protozoans, bacteria, some algae

  • Multicellular- many celled organism – cells start to specialize/differentiate


  • Multicellular

3rd Criteria for Kingdom Divisions

Feeding Type - How the organisms get their food

  • Autotroph or Producer

    • Make their own food

  • Heterotroph or Consumer

    • Must eat other organisms to survive

    • Includes decomposers – those that eat dead matter!

6 kingdoms

  • Eubacteria

  • Archaebacteria

  • Protista

  • Fungi

  • Plantae

  • Animalia







6 Kingdoms



Archaebacteria Kingdom

  • Ancient bacteria-

    • Live in very harsh environments

    • extremophiles

The common bacteria that most people talk about when they say “bacteria”, because they live in more neutral conditions.

Eubacteria Kingdom

  • Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes

  • They all have

    a cell wall


Protists include many widely ranging microbes, including slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae.


The “Junk Drawer” Kingdom

  • There are animal-like, fungus-like, and plant-like protists

  • Some are beneficial

  • Some protists can cause diseases in humans, such as:

Protista Kingdom


  • Unicellular

  • Heterotrophic Filter Feeder

  • Eat bacteria from decomposing vegetation

  • Considered the most evolved and complex of the protozoans

  • Locomotion Cilla


  • Unicellular

  • Heterotrophic

  • Feed mostly on bacteria

  • Habitat - freshwater ponds throughout the world; one species lives in marine waters

  • Locomotion Cilla

Stentor Protozoan

  • Large protist

  • Heterotrophic Filter Feeder

  • Blue/green color

  • Trumpet shaped

  • Feeds on bacteria and other small creatures

  • Locomotion Cilla

Spirostomum Protozoan

  • Unicellular

  • Heterotrophic

  • Feeds on bacteria

  • Habitat - freshwater ponds throughout the world; one species lives in marine waters

  • Locomotion Cilla


  • Unicellular

  • Autrotrophic – have chloroplasts

  • Absorb food from environment

  • Locomotion flagella


  • Unicellular

  • Heterotrophic

  • The diet of amoebas include bacteria, metozoa, protozoa, plant cells, etc.

  • Habitat – freshwater / saltwater

  • Locomotion- Pseudopods

Amebic dysentery - is an infection of the intestines caused by the parasite Entamoebahistolytica.

Protists Disease

Ameba histolytica

Amebiasis is contracted by consuming contaminated food or water containing the cyst stage of the parasite. It can also be spread by person-to-person contact.

African Sleeping Sickness They are transmitted to humans by tsetse fly (Glossina genus) bites.

Protists Disease


Malaria-Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted from one human to another by the bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes.

Protists Disease


Protists can be autotrophs or heterotrophs

Protists Nutrition

The Kingdom Fungi includes some of the most important organisms.

Heterotrophic- break down dead organic material and continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems.

Fungi Kingdom

  • All fungi are eukaryotic

  • They may be unicellular or multicellular

  • All fungi have a cell wall just like plants


Unicellular (yeast)


Fungi can be very helpful and delicious

Many antibacterial drugs are derived from fungi - penicillin

Fungi accounts for the blue vein in blue cheese!



Fungi live off, or consume dead or decaying plant or animal material which is an important role they play in all ecosystems.

All fungi absorb their food.

Fungi Energy Sources

Fungi also causes a number of plant and animal diseases:


  • Athlete's Foot



Fungi are stationary

They have root-like structures that they use for attachment

Mushroom are fungal fruiting bodies.

Fungi Locomotion

All plants are multicellular, their cells having a cell wall

Autotrophs-make own carbs for energy through photosynthesis

Plant Kingdom

4 important plant groups are the:


Mosses (Bryophytes)

Ferns (Pteridophytes)


Flowering Plants (Angiosperms)

Conifers (Gymnosperms)

Nonvascular Plants - Mosses

  • the simplest of all land dwelling plants 

  • Nonvascular (no “veins”)-lack an internal means for

  • water transportation 

  • do not produce seeds or flowers

    • -fertilization depends on water medium to get the sperm to the egg.

  • lack a woody tissue necessary for support around their “stems” and so are usually relatively short


Vascular Plants-Angiosperms and Gymnosperms

  • Internal transportation System

    • Xylem – water carrying tubes

    • Phloem – sugar carrying tissues

    • enables plants to evolve into larger specimens.

  • Produce Seeds – protects and nourishes an Embryo of the new plant


  • Conifers (pine cones)

  • Oldest vascular plants


- flowering plants

Animalia Kingdom

  • All animals are:

  • Multicellular: cells lacking a cell wall -Heterotrophs

  • Capable of movement at some point in their lives.

Criteria for Animal Classification

  • Skeletal Characteristics

    • Invertebrates

      have a hard external skeleton made of chitin known as an exoskeleton

    • Vertebrates

      have a hard internal skeleton made of bone or cartilage

  • Kingdom

    • Phylum

      • Class

        • Order

        • Family

        • Genus

        • Species

          Major phylums of animals are…

Porifera: sponges

Cnidarians: Jellyfish, corals, and other stingers. . . Their stinger is called a nematocyst

  • Mollusks

    • Octopi, squid

  • Mollusks

    • Clams, oysters

  • Mollusks

    • Snails, slugs

  • Platyhelminthes (flat worms)

    • Tapeworms & Liver Fluke & Planaria

    • Hermaphrodites-fertilize their own sex cells internally then zygotes are released into water to hatch

Human liver fluke

  • Annelids (segmented worms)

    • Worms & leeches

  • Echinoderms

    • Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers

  • Arthropods

    • Shell fish, arachnids & BUGS!

  • Chordates—all other animals that have a backbone of some form

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