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6 Kingdoms of Life. As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system. Carl Linnaeus was a scientist who developed a classification system for living things. Wrote book Systema

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As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system.


Classifying living things

Carl Linnaeus was a attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system.scientist who developed a classification system for living things.

Wrote book Systema

Naturae in 1735 to

reveal his classification

system.

Classifying Living Things


How biologists classify

1. attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system.Comparing morphology (physical traits)

2. Looking at genetic similarities & differences

3. Biochemical make-ups

4. Behavioral similarities

Origin of Life Video

How biologists classify


Cladograms

Cladogram attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system.- a branching diagram that shows evolutionary relationships.

We use taxonomy – the science of classifying living things, to help us determine the cladogram.

Cladograms


6 kingdoms

6 Kingdoms


Scientific naming
Scientific Naming into:

  • Binomial nomenclature- unique 2-word naming system used by scientists.

  • 1st word is the genus, 2nd is the species.

  • Genus- group of organisms that share similar characteristics.

    • Panthera leo-lion

    • Panthera pardus-leopard

  • Species- group of organisms that can successfully breed within their group, but not others.


How to write a scientific name

Genus is always capitalized into:

Species is always lower case

The whole name is underlined if written or italicized if typed.

Example: Homo sapiens

How to write a scientific name


Examples

  • Homo sapiens into::

    • Homo = genus

    • sapiens = species

    • Common name = humans

  • Quercus rubra–

    • Quercus = genus

    • rubra = species

    • Common name = red oak

  • Scientific names are in Latin b/c scholars in the Middle Ages communicated using it!

Examples


Classification
Classification into:

  • Scientists have determined seven levels of classification:

    • Kingdom = Kids

    • Phylum = Pick

    • Class= Candy

    • Order = Over

    • Family = Fancy

    • Genus = Green

    • Species = Salads


Classification of modern humans
Classification of Modern Humans into:

  • Kingdom = Animalia

  • Phylum = Chordata

  • Class = Mammalia

  • Order = Primates

  • Family = Hominidae

  • Genus = Homo

  • Species = sapiens



1 factors:stCriteria for Kingdom Divisions:

Cell Type

Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes


2 factors:nd criteria for Kingdom Divisions:

Cell Number

  • Unicellular- single celled organism – protozoans, bacteria, some algae

  • Multicellular- many celled organism – cells start to specialize/differentiate


Unicellular factors:

  • Multicellular


3 factors:rd Criteria for Kingdom Divisions

Feeding Type - How the organisms get their food

  • Autotroph or Producer

    • Make their own food

  • Heterotroph or Consumer

    • Must eat other organisms to survive

    • Includes decomposers – those that eat dead matter!


6 kingdoms factors:

  • Eubacteria

  • Archaebacteria

  • Protista

  • Fungi

  • Plantae

  • Animalia


6 kingdoms1

Archaebacteria factors:

Eubacteria

Protista

Fungi

Plantae

Animalia

6 Kingdoms

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes


Archaebacteria kingdom
Archaebacteria Kingdom factors:

  • Ancient bacteria-

    • Live in very harsh environments

    • extremophiles


Eubacteria kingdom

The common bacteria that most people talk about when they say “bacteria”, because they live in more neutral conditions.

Eubacteria Kingdom


Bacteria

Bacteria


Protists

Protists include many widely ranging microbes, including slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae.

Protists

The “Junk Drawer” Kingdom


Protista kingdom

Protista Kingdom


Blepharisma protist
Blepharisma slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae.Protist

  • Unicellular

  • Heterotrophic Filter Feeder

  • Eat bacteria from decomposing vegetation

  • Considered the most evolved and complex of the protozoans

  • Locomotion Cilla


Paramecium
Paramecium slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae.

  • Unicellular

  • Heterotrophic

  • Feed mostly on bacteria

  • Habitat - freshwater ponds throughout the world; one species lives in marine waters

  • Locomotion Cilla


Stentor protozoan
Stentor slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae. Protozoan

  • Large protist

  • Heterotrophic Filter Feeder

  • Blue/green color

  • Trumpet shaped

  • Feeds on bacteria and other small creatures

  • Locomotion Cilla


Spirostomum protozoan
Spirostomum slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae. Protozoan

  • Unicellular

  • Heterotrophic

  • Feeds on bacteria

  • Habitat - freshwater ponds throughout the world; one species lives in marine waters

  • Locomotion Cilla


Euglena
Euglena slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae.

  • Unicellular

  • Autrotrophic – have chloroplasts

  • Absorb food from environment

  • Locomotion flagella


Amoeba
Amoeba slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae.

  • Unicellular

  • Heterotrophic

  • The diet of amoebas include bacteria, metozoa, protozoa, plant cells, etc.

  • Habitat – freshwater / saltwater

  • Locomotion- Pseudopods


Protists disease

Amebic slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae.dysentery - is an infection of the intestines caused by the parasite Entamoebahistolytica.

Protists Disease

Ameba histolytica

Amebiasis is contracted by consuming contaminated food or water containing the cyst stage of the parasite. It can also be spread by person-to-person contact.


Protists disease1

African Sleeping slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae.Sickness They are transmitted to humans by tsetse fly (Glossina genus) bites.

Protists Disease

Trypanosoma


Protists disease2

Malaria slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae.-Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted from one human to another by the bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes.

Protists Disease

Plasmodium


Protists nutrition

Protists can be autotrophs or heterotrophs slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae.

Protists Nutrition


Fungi kingdom

The Kingdom Fungi includes some of the most important organisms.

Heterotrophic- break down dead organic material and continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems.

Fungi Kingdom


Fungi

  • All fungi are eukaryotic organisms.

  • They may be unicellular or multicellular

  • All fungi have a cell wall just like plants

Fungi

Unicellular (yeast)

Multicellular


Fungi1

Fungi can be very helpful and delicious organisms.

Many antibacterial drugs are derived from fungi - penicillin

Fungi accounts for the blue vein in blue cheese!

Fungi

Penicillin


Fungi energy sources

Fungi live off, or consume dead or decaying plant or animal material which is an important role they play in all ecosystems.

All fungi absorb their food.

Fungi Energy Sources


Fungi2

Fungi also causes a number of plant and animal diseases: material which is an important role they play in

Fungi

  • Athlete's Foot


Fungi3

Ringworm material which is an important role they play in

Fungi


Fungi locomotion

Fungi are stationary material which is an important role they play in

They have root-like structures that they use for attachment

Mushroom are fungal fruiting bodies.

Fungi Locomotion


Plant kingdom

All plants are multicellular, their cells having a cell wall

Autotrophs-make own carbs for energy through photosynthesis

Plant Kingdom


4 important plant groups are the:

Non-vascular

Mosses (Bryophytes)

Ferns (Pteridophytes)

Vascular

Flowering Plants (Angiosperms)

Conifers (Gymnosperms)


Nonvascular Plants - Mosses

  • the simplest of all land dwelling plants 

  • Nonvascular (no “veins”)-lack an internal means for

  • water transportation 

  • do not produce seeds or flowers

    • - fertilization depends on water medium to get the sperm to the egg.

  • lack a woody tissue necessary for support around their “stems” and so are usually relatively short



Vascular Plants-Angiosperms and Gymnosperms

  • Internal transportation System

    • Xylem – water carrying tubes

    • Phloem – sugar carrying tissues

    • enables plants to evolve into larger specimens.

  • Produce Seeds – protects and nourishes an Embryo of the new plant


Gymnosperms

  • Conifers (pine cones)

  • Oldest vascular plants


Angiosperms

- flowering plants


Animalia Kingdom

  • All animals are:

  • Multicellular: cells lacking a cell wall -Heterotrophs

  • Capable of movement at some point in their lives.


Criteria for Animal Classification

  • Skeletal Characteristics

    • Invertebrates

      have a hard external skeleton made of chitin known as an exoskeleton

    • Vertebrates

      have a hard internal skeleton made of bone or cartilage


  • Kingdom

    • Phylum

      • Class

        • Order

        • Family

        • Genus

        • Species

          Major phylums of animals are…



Cnidarians : Jellyfish, corals, and other stingers. . . Their stinger is called a nematocyst





  • Platyhelminthes (flat worms)

    • Tapeworms & Liver Fluke & Planaria

    • Hermaphrodites-fertilize their own sex cells internally then zygotes are released into water to hatch

Human liver fluke






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