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Municipal Waste Management in EU. DG Environment European Commission. Municipal waste – definition and scope. No definition in legislation! Common sense definitions: waste generated by households and similar waste from other sources Waste collected by municipal services

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Municipal waste management in eu

Municipal Waste Management in EU

DG Environment European Commission


Municipal waste definition and scope
Municipal waste – definition and scope

  • No definition in legislation!

  • Common sense definitions:

    • waste generated by households and similar waste from other sources

    • Waste collected by municipal services

  • There is no specific legislation on municipal waste but they are addressed in several acts.


Municipal waste why cause problems
Municipal waste – why cause problems

  • Diversified composition

  • Dispersed generation

  • Visible!

  • Problems with financing – how to apply producer pays principle?


Municipal waste environmental problems
Municipal waste – environmental problems

  • Emissions from waste treatment (especially methane emissions from landfilling)

  • Wasting of resources

  • Problem no 1 – limiting the landfilling

  • Problem no 2 – increase recycling and recovery


Diverting waste from landfills
Diverting waste from landfills

  • Some Member States still rely heavily on landfilling e.g. Ireland, UK, Greece, Spain & EU-12

  • High number of illegal landfills in the EU - negative impact on air, water, soil (e.g. methane, leachate)

  • A lot of biowaste is diverted from landfills – even more has to be done.


Projected generation and landfilling of municipal waste in the eu 25
Projected generation and landfilling of municipal waste in the EU-25

Source: EEA, 2007

Source: CEC, 2006. EEA Landfill Brochure.


Structure of waste legislation
Structure of waste legislation the EU-25

Framework Legislation

Horizontal Legislation

Waste Stream Specific Legislation


Waste Prevention and Recycling Strategy the EU-25

New Waste Framework Directive (WFD)

2008/98/EC

Framework Legislation

Waste Shipment Regulation

(Reg. (EEC) 259/93 replaced by 1013/2006/EC)

Supporting legislation: waste lists, reporting obligations etc.

Hazardous Waste Directive

Dir.91/689/EEC

Waste Treatment Operations

Incineration

2000/76/EC; to be replaced by new IPPC

Landfill

1999/31/EC

Recyclingsee new WFD

Biological treatmentno legislation yet

Waste Streams

Waste oils

75/439/EEC

Titanium Dioxide

78/176/EEC

Sewage Sludge

86/278/EEC

Batteries and Accumulators

91/157/EEC replaced by 2006/66/EC

Packaging and Packaging Waste

94/62/EC

PCBs

96/59/EC

End-of-life Vehicles

2000/53 EC

Waste electric and electronic equipment WEEE

2002/96/EC

Restriction of Hazardous Substances RoHS

Dir.2002/95/EC

Mining Waste

2006/21/EC

repealed by new WFD

To be replaced by new IPPC

Up-date in 2010-11



Landfill directive – distance to targets: the EU-25Biodegradable waste landfilled in 2003 compared to generation in 1996

Source: CEC, 2006. EEA Landfill Brochure.





T reatment techniques used
T the EU-25reatment techniques used

  • Generally waste hierarchy applies – usually recycling is the best

  • No single best technology for municipal waste treatment – except landfilling as singe WORST technology

  • E.g. in comparisons between incineration and biological treatment life cycle approach suggests some of the key factors as follows:

    • Amount of energy recovered by incineration

    • Type of energy replaced by incineration

    • Local market for compost and what type of products replaced by compost (peat, fertilizers)

    • Promising results of anaerobic digestion – delivering renewable energy as biogas and still digestate can be further used on soil


Economic issues
Economic issues the EU-25

  • The capital and operating costs of MSW management and biological treatment of waste depend on multiple factors and vary regionally and locally – so there is close to impossible to have general data or make comparisons

  • In the study for European Commission the following financial cost estimates of management of bio-waste were proposed as assumptions representative for the EU-15 (2002):

    • Separate collection of bio-waste followed by composting: 35 to 75 €/tonne;

    • Separate collection of bio-waste followed by anaerobic digestion: 80 to125 €/tonne;

    • Landfill of mixed waste: 55 €/tonne;

    • Incineration of mixed waste: 90 €/tonne.

    • the additional costs of separate collection at 0-15 €/tonne


Health issues
Health issues the EU-25

  • Very limited epidemiological data

  • UK study for DEFRA suggests very limited or no impact on health

  • DEFRA 2004, Review of environmental and health effects of waste management: municipal solid waste and similar wastes (DEFRA, May 2004); http://www.defra.gov.uk/ENVIRONMENT/waste/research/health/index.htm


Green paper on bio waste
Green Paper on bio-waste the EU-25

  • Published 3rd of December

  • First step in the assessment for the potential proposal on the new legislation

  • May be used as base for further reading (many references)

  • For more info visit: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/compost/index.htm


Thank you for your attention
Thank you for your attention! the EU-25

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/index.htm

European Commission – DG ENV.G.4

Sustainable Consumption and Production

Avenue de Beaulieu 5, B-1160 Brussels


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